Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Enhanced Behavioral Activation for Depression: A Concurrent and Non-Concurrent Between-Participants Study
Functional analytic psychotherapy enhanced behavioral activation (FEBA) is a therapeutic approach that combines strategies from behavioral activation and functional analytic psychotherapy to improve therapeutic outcomes in clients who lack stable sources of reinforcement in their natural environments. In FEBA, therapists modify clients’ behaviors within the therapeutic session and simultaneously change clients’ environmental conditions in their natural contexts. A concurrent and nonconcurrent multiple-baseline design between participants was conducted. Four participants—2 men and 2 women—who reported depressive symptoms were independently treated in a psychological services center by 2 male therapists. FEBA increased the frequency of healthy behaviors (e.g., engaging in meaningful conversations with friends) in session and out of session. However, depressive behaviors in therapeutic and natural settings did not show stable changes. The implications for implementing some of the results of this study with clients with depression are discussed. Methodological recommendations for using FEBA with specific populations and in other contexts are also presented.
KeywordsFunctional analytic psychotherapy enhanced behavioral activation Depressive behaviors Healthy behaviors Clinically relevant behaviors
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial or nonfinancial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this article.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Human participants and Animal studies
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- American Psychological Association (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct.Retrieved from http:// www.apa.org/ethics.
- American Psychological Association (2015). Psychological treatments.Retrieved from https://www.div12.org/psychological-treatments/treatments/.
- Campo-Arias, A., Díaz-Martínez, L. A., Rueda-Jaimes, G. E., & Barros-Bermúdez, J. A. (2005). Validación de la escala de Zung para depresiónenuniversitarias de Bucaramanga, Colombia. RevistaColombiana de Psiquiatría, 34, 54–62.Google Scholar
- Carrascoso, F., & Valdivia, S. (2007). Towards alternative criteria for the validation of psychological treatments. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 7, 347–363.Google Scholar
- Cooper, J., Heron, T., & Heward, W. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.). London: Pearson.Google Scholar
- David, D., & Montgomery, G. H. (2011). The scientific status of psychotherapies: A new evaluative framework for evidence-based psychosocial interventions. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 18, 89–98.Google Scholar
- Ekers, D., Webster, L., Van Straten, A., Cuijpers, P., Richards, D., & Gilbody, S. (2014). Behavioural activation for depression: An update of meta-analysis of effectiveness and sub group analysis. PLoS One, 9. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100100.
- Fernández Parra, A., & Ferro García, R. (2006). Psicoterapiaanalíticofuncional: Una aproximación contextual funcional al tratamientopsicológico. EduPsykhé, 5, 203–229.Google Scholar
- Hayes, S., Strosahl, K., & Wilson, K. (1999a). Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Hayes, S. C., Barlow, D., & Nelson-Gray, R. (1999b). The scientist practitioner: Research and accountability in the age of managed care. Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
- Kanter, J. W., Busch, A. M., & Rusch, L. C. (2009). Behavioral activation: Distinctive features. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Lewinsohn, P. M. (1974). A behavioral approach to the treatment of depression. In R. M. Freidman & M. M. Katz (Eds.), The psychology of depression: Contemporary theory and research (pp. 157–185). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Martell, C., Dimidjian, S., & Hernan-Dunn, R. (2010). Behavioral activation for depression: A clinician’s guide. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Martell, C. R., Addis, M. E., & Jacobson, N. S. (2001). Depression in context: Strategies for guided action. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
- Muñoz, R., Le, H., Clarke, G., Barrera, A., & Torres, L. (2009). Preventing first onset and recurrence of major depressive episodes. In I. Gotlib & C. Hammen (Eds.), Handbook of depression (pp. 533–553). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Tolin, D. F., McKay, D., Forman, E. M., Klonsky, E. D., & Thombs, B. D. (2015). Empirically supported treatment: Recommendations for a new model. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 22, 317–338.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (2012). 10 facts about mental health.Retrieved from http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/mental_health/mental_health_facts/es/index1.html.