Adolescents’ Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Toward Cyberbullying: an Exploratory Study Using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) and Self-Report Measures
- 371 Downloads
The current study reports the findings of an experiment in which adolescents’ explicit and implicit attitudes toward cyberbullying were explored. Participants first completed an explicit measure of their attitudes toward cyberbullying, followed by an implicit measure in the form of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). Results revealed that participants displayed a combination of anti- and pro-cyberbullying attitudes. There was no statistically significant correlation between participants’ implicit and explicit attitudes toward cyberbullying. The current findings may have important implications for our understanding of adolescents’ attitudes toward cyberbullying and the development of relevant educational programs.
KeywordsCyberbullying Adolescents Implicit attitudes IRAP
This research was funded by an Irish Research Council grant awarded to Anita Munnelly.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there are no conflicts of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Barnes-Holmes, D., Murphy, A., Barnes-Holmes, Y., & Stewart, I. (2010). The implicit relational assessment procedure: Exploring the impact of private versus public contexts and the response latency criterion on pro-white and anti-black stereotyping among white Irish individuals. The Psychological Record, 60, 57–79.Google Scholar
- Brighi, A., Ortega, R., Scheitauer, H., Smith, P. K., Tsormpatzoudis, C., Barkoukis, V., & Del Rey, R. (2012a). European cyberbullying intervention project questionnaire (ECIPQ). Unpublished manuscript, Bologna: University of Bologna.Google Scholar
- Brighi, A., Ortega, R., Scheitauer, H., Smith, P. K., Tsormpatzoudis, C., Barkoukis, V., & Del Rey, R. (2012b). European bullying intervention project questionnaire (EBIPQ). Unpublished manuscript, Bologna: University of Bologna.Google Scholar
- Farrell, L., Cochrane, A., & McHugh, L. (2015). Exploring attitudes towards gender and science: The advantages of an IRAP approach versus the IAT. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 4, 121–128.Google Scholar
- Farrell, L., & McHugh, L. (2017). Examining gender-STEM bias among STEM and non-STEM students using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 6, 80–90.Google Scholar
- Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 197–216.Google Scholar
- Grigg, D. W. (2010). Cyber-aggression: Definition and concept of cyberbullying. Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools, 20, 143–156.Google Scholar
- Hayes, S. C., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Roche, B. (2001). Relational frame theory: A post-Skinnerian account of human language and cognition. New York: Academic Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
- Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2007). Offline consequences of online victimization: School violence and delinquency. Journal of School Violence, 6, 89–112.Google Scholar
- Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2008a). Cyberbullying: An exploratory analysis of factors related to offending and victimization. Deviant Behavior, 29, 1–29.Google Scholar
- Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2008b). Personal information of adolescents on the internet: A quantitative content analysis of MySpace. Journal of Adolescence, 31, 125–146.Google Scholar
- Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2014). Cyberbullying identification, prevention, and response. Retrieved from https://cyberbullying.org/Cyberbullying-Identification-Prevention-Response.pdf.
- Hughes, S., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2013). A functional approach to the study of implicit cognition: The implicit relational assessment procedure (IRAP) and the relational elaboration and coherence (REC) model. In S. Dymond & B. Roche (Eds.), Advances in relational frame theory (pp. 97–125). Windermere: Context Press.Google Scholar
- Hussey, I., Mhaoileoin, D. N., Barnes-Holmes, D., Ohtsuki, T., Kishita, N., Hughes, S., & Murphy, C. (2016). The IRAP is nonrelative but not acontextual: Changes to the contrast category influence men’s dehumanization of women. The Psychological Record, 66, 291–299.Google Scholar
- Hussey, I., Thompson, M., McEnteggart, C., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Barnes-Holmes, Y. (2015). Interpreting and inverting with less cursing: A guide to interpreting IRAP data. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 4, 157–162.Google Scholar
- Kowalski, R., Limber, S., Scheck, A., Redfearn, M., Allen, J., & Calloway, A. M. (2005). Electronic bullying among school-aged children and youth. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Li, Q. (2007a). Bullying in the new playground: Research into cyberbullying and cyber victimisation. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 23, 435–454.Google Scholar
- Li, Q. (2007b). New bottle but old wine: A research of cyberbullying in schools. Computers and Human Behavior, 23, 1777–1791.Google Scholar
- McKenna, I., Hughes, S., Barnes-Holmes, D., De Schryver, M., Yoder, R., & O’Shea, D. (2016). Obesity, food restriction, and implicit attitudes to healthy and unhealthy foods: Lessons learned from the implicit relational assessment procedure. Appetite, 100, 41–54.Google Scholar
- Nicholson, E., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2012). Developing an implicit measure of disgust propensity and disgust sensitivity: examining the role of implicit disgust propensity and sensitivity in obsessive-compulsive tendencies. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 43, 922–930.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Olweus, D. (1999). Norway. In P. K. Smith, Y. Morita, J. Junger-Tas, D. Olweus, R. Catalano, & P. Sloan (Eds.), The nature of school bullying: A cross-sectional perspective (pp. 7–27). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Parling, T., Cernvall, M., Stewart, I., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Ghaderi, A. (2012). Using the implicit relational assessment procedure to compare implicit pro-thin/anti-fat attitudes of patients with anorexia nervosa and non-clinical controls. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 20, 127–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Perugini, M., & Prestwich, A. (2007). The gatekeeper: Individual differences are key in the chain from perception to behavior. European Journal of Personality, 21, 303–317.Google Scholar
- Remue, J., De Houwer, J., Barnes-Holmes, D., Vanderhasselt, M. A., & De Raedt, R. (2013). Self-esteem revisited: Performance on the implicit relational assessment procedure as a measure of self- versus ideal self-related cognitions in dysphoria. Cognition and Emotion, 27, 1441–1449.Google Scholar
- Scanlon, G., McEnteggart, C., Barnes-Holmes, Y., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2014). Using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) to assess implicit gender bias and self-esteem in typically-developing children and children with ADHD and with dyslexia. Behavioral Development Bulletin, 19, 48–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Slonje, R., & Smith, P. K. (2008). Cyberbullying: Another main type of bullying. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49, 147–154.Google Scholar
- Smith, P. K., Madhavi, J., Carvalho, M., Fisher, S., Russell, S., & Tippett, N. (2008). Cyberbullying: Its nature and impact on secondary school pupils. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 376–385.Google Scholar
- Vahey, N., Boles, S., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2010). Measuring adolescents’ smoking-related social identity preferences with the implicit relational assessment procedure (IRAP) for the first time: A starting point that explains later IRAP evolutions. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 10, 453–474.Google Scholar
- Vandebosch, H., & Van Cleemput, K. (2008). Defining cyberbullying: A qualitative research into the perceptions of youngsters. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 11, 499–503.Google Scholar
- Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, J. K. (2004). Online aggressor/targets, aggressors, and targets: A comparison of associated youth characteristics. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1308–1316.Google Scholar