The Psychological Record

, Volume 66, Issue 4, pp 599–609

The Effects of Analyses of Contingencies on Clinically Relevant Behaviors and Out-of-session Changes in Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

  • Alessandra Villas-Bôas
  • Sonia Beatriz Meyer
  • Jonathan William Kanter
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s40732-016-0195-y

Cite this article as:
Villas-Bôas, A., Meyer, S.B. & Kanter, J.W. Psychol Rec (2016) 66: 599. doi:10.1007/s40732-016-0195-y


Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a behavior-analytic psychotherapy approach that shapes client behavior through application of behavioral principles in the therapeutic relationship. Two categories of in-session clinically relevant behavior (CRB) are recognized: CRB1 (problem behaviors) and CRB2 (improvements). The therapist watches for CRBs (Rule 1), evokes (Rule 2) and responds to CRBs (Rule 3) and observes the effects of his/her own behavior on CRBs (Rule 4). This sequence constitutes an experiential interaction in FAP. FAP also includes an analytic interaction, in which the therapist analyzes the client’s behavior, teaches the client to do so (CRB3) and asks him/her to engage in homework, promoting generalization (Rule 5). The goal of this investigation was to verify if analytic interventions in FAP are indeed necessary for generalization of in-session to out-of-session improvements. Two clients were submitted to a single-case experimental procedure, A-B-BC-B-BC, in which A corresponded to behavior therapy without systematic FAP; B corresponded to the introduction of Rules 1 to 4; and BC to the addition of Rule 5. Improvements in and out of session were achieved with the experimental procedure and maintained until a follow-up session. Instances of Rule 5 in the BC phases influenced the clients’ analyses of their own behavior, but did not seem to influence rates of CRB1 and CRB2 or out-of-session problems or improvements. There was no evidence from this study that analyses made by therapists or clients are necessary in addition to the clear shaping process conducted by FAP.


Behavior Therapy Contingency Analysis Generalization External Measures Experimental Design Coding 

Funding information

Funder NameGrant NumberFunding Note
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo
  • 2010/19816-2

Copyright information

© Association for Behavior Analysis International 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessandra Villas-Bôas
    • 1
  • Sonia Beatriz Meyer
    • 1
  • Jonathan William Kanter
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de Psicologia Clínica, Instituto de PsicologiaUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.University of WashingtonCenter for the Science of Social ConnectionSeattleUSA

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