The Effects of Acceptance of Thoughts, Mindful Awareness of Breathing, and Spontaneous Coping on an Experimentally Induced Pain Task
- 236 Downloads
The current study examined the effects of acceptance of thoughts, mindful awareness of breathing, and spontaneous coping on both pain tolerance and pain threshold during a cold pressor task. Eligible participants (N = 58), 16 males and 42 females (M age = 29.31, SD = 11.21), were randomized into three groups and completed two cold pressor trials. The first cold pressor trial formed a baseline for all three groups. The acceptance of thoughts and mindfulness of breathing groups listened to recorded instructions and then completed a second administration of the cold pressor task. The spontaneous coping group completed the cold pressor task twice with instructions to select their own coping style. Multilevel linear modeling showed significant group differences in pain tolerance. The acceptance of thoughts and mindfulness of breathing conditions resulted in significantly higher pain tolerance in post hoc analysis than spontaneous coping. Results were interpreted to be consistent with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Further examination of the effects of ACT processes on experimentally induced pain tolerance is needed.
KeywordsAcceptance Mindfulness Cold pressor Pain
- Bond, F. W., Hayes, S. C., Baer, R. A., Carpenter, K. M., Orcutt, H. K., Waltz, T., & Zettle, R. D. (2011). Preliminary psychometric properties of the acceptance and action questionnaire-II: a revised measure of psychological flexibility and acceptance. Behavior Therapy, 42(4), 676–688.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Graven-Nielsen, T., Sergerdahl, M., Svensson, P., & Arendt-Nielsen, L. (2001). Methods for induction and assessment of pain in humans with clinical and pharmacological examples. In L. Kruger (Ed.), Methods in pain research (pp. 263–304). Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
- Harris, R. (2009). ACT made simple: An easy to read primer on acceptance and commitment therapy. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications.Google Scholar
- Hayes, S. C., Bissett, R. T., Korn, Z., Zettle, R. D., Rosenfarb, I. S., Cooper, L. D., & Grundt, A. M. (1999). The impact of acceptance versus control rationales on pain tolerance. The Psychological Record, 49, 33–47.Google Scholar
- Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J. B., Bond, F. W., Masuda, A., & Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: model, processes and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1–25. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.06.006.
- Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K., Wilson, K. G., Bissett, R. T., Pistorello, J., Toarmino, D., & McCurry, S. M. (2004). Measuring experiential avoidance: a preliminary test of a working model. The Psychological Record, 54, 553–578.Google Scholar
- Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K., & Wilson, K. G. (2012). Acceptance and commitment therapy: The process and practice of mindful change (2nd ed.). New York: The Guildford Press.Google Scholar
- Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: The program of the stress reduction clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. New York: Dell Publishing.Google Scholar
- Kingston, J., Chadwick, P., Meron, D., & Skinner, T. C. (2007). A pilot randomized control trial investigating the effect of mindfulness practice on pain tolerance, psychological well-being, and physiological activity. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 62, 297–300. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2006.10.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- LeResche, L. (2000). Epidemiologic perspective on sex differences in pain. In R. Fillingim (Ed.), Sex, gender, and pain: Progress in pain research and management (pp. 233–249). Seattle: IASP Press.Google Scholar
- McCraken, L. M., Vowles, K. E., & Eccleston, C. (2005). Acceptance-based treatment for persons with complex, long standing chronic pain: a preliminary analysis of treatment outcome in comparison to a waiting phase. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 1335–1346. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2004.10.003.
- Paez-Blarrina, M., Luciano, C., Gutierrez-Martinez, O., Valdivia, S., Ortega, J., & Rodriguez-Valverde, M. (2008). The role of values with personal examples in altering the functions of pain: comparison between acceptance-based and cognitive-control-based protocols. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 84–97. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2007.10.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
- Takahashi, M., Muto, T., Tada, M., & Sugiyama, M. (2002). Acceptance rationale and increasing pain tolerance: acceptance-based and FEAR-based practice. Japanese Journal of Behavior Therapy, 28(1), 35–46.Google Scholar
- Wicksell, R. K., Ahlqvist, J., Bring, A., Melin, L., & Olsson, G. L. (2008a). Can exposure and acceptance strategies improve functioning and life satisfaction in people with chronic pain and whiplash-associated disorders (wad)? A randomized controlled trial. Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 37(3), 169–182. doi: 10.1080/16506070802078970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wicksell, R. K., Melin, L., Lekander, M., & Olsson, G. L. (2008b). Evaluating the effectiveness of exposure and acceptance strategies to improve functioning and quality of life in longstanding pediatric pain: a randomized controlled trial. Pain, 141(3), 248–257. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2008.11.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zettle, R. D., Hocker, T. R., Mick, K. A., Scofield, B. E., Peterson, C. L., Song, H., & Sudarijanto, R. P. (2005). Differential strategies in coping with pain as a function of level of experiential avoidance. The Psychological Record, 55, 511–524.Google Scholar