Purpose of Review
Adsorbent-based microextraction is a dynamic and simple sample preparation that allows for simultaneous extraction and enrichment of targeted analytes from a sample matrix. Its versatility, efficiency, and compliance with green analysis have contributed to its popularity against conventional solid-phase extraction. This review focuses on the current state of the art, future trends in experimental design, and critical aspects of adsorbent-based microextraction techniques considered for extraction and preconcentration of different classes of micropollutants in environmental waters.
Despite solid-phase microextraction has shown exceptional flexibility in routine microscale extraction, the other adsorbent-based microanalytical work continues to experience an enormous increase in innovation. Discussions are focused on recent studies utilizing different modes include dispersive, magnetic, bar sorptive, membrane-protected, and thin film for introducing adsorbents in an aqueous media. Cogently, the developed micro-scale procedure using functionalized adsorbent has shown distinct advantages over conventional methods. Modifications were aimed at shortening the time for analysis, minimal waste production, and robustness over the complexity of sample matrices. Adsorbent selection is now widening from commercial materials like activated carbon to newly synthesized materials such as metal-organic framework. The final section discusses the current progress on hybrid approaches and the intended future directions to further explore and popularize the adsorbent-based microextraction.
This review guides the audiences with an introductory, succinct discussion of the basic concepts of the adsorbent-based microextraction and the success story of the high-throughput real sample analysis.
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This study received financial support from the Ministry of Education, Malaysia through a research grant with vote numbers 59508 (FRGS/1/2018/STG01/UMT/02/4).
Conflict of Interest
Saw Hong Loh, Noorfatimah Yahaya, Siti Munirah Ishak, Wan Mohd Afiq Wan Mohd Khalik, Nor Syuhadaa Che Abdullah, Hassan Y. Aboul-Enein, and Meng Chuan Ong declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Loh, S.H., Yahaya, N., Ishak, S.M. et al. Recent Trends in Adsorbent-Based Microextraction of Micropollutants in Environmental Waters. Curr Pollution Rep 7, 89–103 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40726-021-00177-5