Current Pollution Reports

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 230–244 | Cite as

A Review of Non-Acoustic Measures to Handle Community Response to Noise around Airports

  • C. AsensioEmail author
  • L. Gasco
  • G. de Arcas
Noise Pollution (PH Zannin, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Noise Pollution


It seems obvious that the noise levels in local communities surrounding airports influences the level of acceptance of an airport. What is not so evident is the effect of non-acoustic factors that increase the societal rejection, like the lack of sensitivity and empathy from the authorities and airport managers, the lack of trust in them, the lack of information and transparency, the perception of being excluded from the decision making and so on. Complementary to the traditional strategies based on the reduction of noise exposure, a community engagement and involvement approach brings new possibilities to manage noise around airports, trying to exploit the non-acoustic factors that have negatively affected the community response. Building trust among the stakeholders is a key factor in this strategy, and it must be based on a long-term, honest, and transparent two-way communication. In the last decade, the huge growth of the information and communication technologies has opened new opportunities that the aviation organizations and stakeholders are starting to explore in depth trying to reduce the degree of rejection of the airport, which may compromise the utilization of existing and future infrastructure. In this review, we make a short introduction on aircraft noise health effects, to focus annoyance and the influence that non-acoustic factors on it. Then, we describe the basis of community engagement as a parallel approach to mitigate noise issues around airports, setting the focus on the noise metrics and the involvement techniques that must be implemented to engage the community.


Noise Aircraft Airport Non-acoustic Community Engagement Involvement Participation Annoyance Health Environment 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    European Commission.,Directorate General for Mobility and Transport. White paper on transport : roadmap to a single European transport area : towards a competitive and resource-efficient transport system. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union; 2011.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    European Aviation Safety Agency, European aviation environmental report 2016, 2016 (2016).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    National Economic Council and the President’s Council of Economic Advisers. USA Government, an economic analysis of transportation infrastructure investment, (2014).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lawton RN, Fujiwara D. Living with aircraft noise: airport proximity, aviation noise and subjective wellbeing in England. Transp Res Part D: Transp Environ. 2016;42:104–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    ICAO, ICAO Environmental report 2016. Aviation and climate change, 2016. (2016).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Asensio C. Air transport noise. Appl Acoust. 2014;84:1–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brooker P. Do people react more strongly to aircraft noise today than in the past? Appl Acoust. 2009;70:747–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    May M, Hill SB. Questioning airport expansion—a case study of Canberra international airport. J Transp Geogr. 2006;14:437–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fidell S, Silvati L, Haboly E. Social survey of community response to a step change in aircraft noise exposure. J Acoust Soc Am. 2002;111:200–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dickson EDD, Ewing AWG, Littler TS. The effects of aeroplane noise on the auditory acuity of aviators: some preliminary remarks. J Laryngol Otol. 54(1939):531–48.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mipick C. Effect of flight on hearing. Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers. 1929;17:2283–96.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ward WD. Hearing of naval aircraft maintenance personnel. J Acoust Soc Am. 1957;29:1289–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pattarini CB. The aviation noise problem. J. Sound Vibrat. 1967;5:370–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Seago E. Airport noise problem and airport zoning. The, MdLRev. 1968;28:120.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bolt RH. The aircraft noise problem. J Acoust Soc Am. 1953;25:363–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Karagodina I, Soldatkina S, Vinokur I, Klimukhin A. Effect of aircraft noise on the population near airports. Hygiene and Sanitation. 1969;34:182–7.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cohen A. Division of environmental sciences: noise effects on health, productivity, and well-being. Trans N Y Acad Sci. 1968;30:910–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Borsky PN. Effects of noise on community behavior, 4 (1969).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Swift H. A review of the literature related to potential health effects of aircraft noise, (2010).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mestre V. ACRP synthesis 9. Effects of aircraft noise: research update on selected topics, (2008).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    W.R.O.f. Europe, burden of disease from environmental noise: quantification of healthy life years lost in Europe, World Health Organization, 2011.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kaltenbach M, Maschke C, Klinke R. Health consequences of aircraft noise. Deutsches Ãrzteblatt International. 2008;105:548–56.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lees J. Aircraft noise and public health. The evidence is loud and clear, (2016).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Clark C. Aircraft noise effects on health, (2015).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Civil Aviation Authority, Aircraft noise, sleep disturbance and health effects, (2014).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Finegold LS, Harris CS, Vongierke HE. Community annoyance and sleep disturbance—updated criteria for assessing the impacts of general transportation noise on people. Noise Control Eng J. 1994;42:25–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fidell S, Pearsons K, Tabachnick BG, Howe R. Effects on sleep disturbance of changes in aircraft noise near three airports. JASA. 2000;107:2535–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fidell S, Pearsons K, Tabachnick B, Howe R, Silvati L, Barber DS. Field-study of noise-induced sleep disturbance. J Acoust Soc Am. 1995;98:1025–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Michaud DS, Fidell S, Pearsons K, Campbell KC, Keith SE. Review of field studies of aircraft noise-induced sleep disturbance. J Acoust Soc Am. 2007;121:32–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Janssen SA, Centen MR, Vos H, van Kamp I. The effect of the number of aircraft noise events on sleep quality. Appl Acoust. 2014;84:9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Knutson KL, Spiegel K, Penev P, Van Cauter E. The metabolic consequences of sleep deprivation. Sleep Med Rev. 2007;11:163–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Babisch W, Swart W, Houthuijs D, Selander J, Bluhm G, Pershagen G, et al. Exposure modifiers of the relationships of transportation noise with high blood pressure and noise annoyance. J Acoust Soc Am. 2012;132:3788–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Basner M, Samel A. Effects of nocturnal aircraft noise on sleep structure. Somnologie - Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin. 2005;9:84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Basner M, Griefahn B, Berg Mv. Aircraft noise effects on sleep: mechanisms, mitigation and research needs. Noise Health. 12(47):95–109.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fidell S, Mestre V, Schomer P, Berry B, Gjestland T, Vallet M, et al. A first-principles model for estimating the prevalence of annoyance with aircraft noise exposure. J Acoust Soc Am. 2011;130:791–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Franssen EAM, van Wiechen CMAG, Nagelkerke NJD, Lebret E. Aircraft noise around a large international airport and its impact on general health and medication use. Occup Environ Med. 2004;61:405–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    van Kempen E, van Kamp I, Stellato R, Clark C. Effects of aircraft noise on children’s health: the role of annoyance. Acta Acustica United With Acustica. 2006;92:S49.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Basner M, Babisch W, Davis A, Brink M, Clark C, Janssen S, et al. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health. Lancet. 2014;383:1325–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Elmenhorst E, Pennig S, Rolny V, Quehl J, Mueller U, Maaß H, et al. Examining nocturnal railway noise and aircraft noise in the field: sleep, psychomotor performance, and annoyance. Sci Total Environ. 2012;424:48–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jones K. ERCD Report 0907. Environmental noise and health: a review. (2010).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pearson T, Campbell MJ, Maheswaran R. Acute effects of aircraft noise on cardiovascular admissions—an interrupted time-series analysis of a six-day closure of London Heathrow airport caused by volcanic ash. Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology. 2016;18:38–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Seidler A, Wagner M, Schubert M, Dröge P, Römer K, Pons-Kühnemann J, et al. Aircraft, road and railway traffic noise as risk factors for heart failure and hypertensive heart disease—a case-control study based on secondary data. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2016;219:749–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Vienneau D, Schindler C, Perez L, Probst-Hensch N, Röösli M. The relationship between transportation noise exposure and ischemic heart disease: a meta-analysis. Environ Res. 2015;138:372–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Münzel T, Gori T, Babisch W, Basner M. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise exposure. Eur Heart J. 2014;35(13):829–836. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehu030.
  45. 45.
    Eriksson C, Bluhm G, Hilding A, Östenson C, Pershagen G. Aircraft noise and incidence of hypertension—gender specific effects. Environ Res. 2010;110:764–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Babisch W. Cardiovascular effects of noise. In: Nriagu JO, editor. Encyclopedia of environmental health. Burlington: Elsevier; 2011. p. 532–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sobotova L, Jurkovicova J, Stefanikova Z, Sevcikova L, Aghova L. Community response to environmental noise and the impact on cardiovascular risk score. Sci Total Environ. 2010;408:1264–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Paunovic K, Belojevic G, Jakovljevic B. Noise annoyance is related to the presence of urban public transport. Sci Total Environ. 2014;481:479–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hansell AL, Blangiardo M, Fortunato L, Fortunato L, Floud S, de Hoogh K, Fecht D, et al. Aircraft noise and cardiovascular disease near Heathrow airport in London: small area study. BMJ. 2013;347:f5432.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lusk SL, Gillespie B, Hagerty BM, Ziemba RA. Acute effects of noise on blood pressure and heart rate. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal. 2004;59:392–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Le Masurier P, Bates J, Taylor J, Flindell I, Humpheson D, Pownall C, Woolley A. Attitudes to noise from aviation sources in England (ANASE): Final Report for Department for Transport. 2007.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    ICAO, Guidance on the balanced approach to aircraft noise management (doc 9829), (2004).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    International Civil Aviation Organization, part V, Annex 16 to the Chicago convention. ICAO assembly resolution A37–18, Appendix C. (2001).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Babisch W, Houthuijs D, Pershagen G, Cadum E, Katsouyanni K, Velonakis M, et al. Annoyance due to aircraft noise has increased over the years—results of the HYENA study. Environ Int. 2009;35:1169–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rodríguez-Díaz A, Adenso-Díaz B, González-Torre PL. A review of the impact of noise restrictions at airports. Transp Res Part D: Transp Environ. 2017;50:144–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Boeing, Airports with noise and emissions restrictions, 2012.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    CANSO, ACI, Managing the impacts of aviation noise. A guide for airport operators and air navigation service providers, (2015).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kroesen M, Molin EJE, Miedema HME, Vos H, Janssen SA, van Wee B. Estimation of the effects of aircraft noise on residential satisfaction. Transportation Research Part D-Transport and Environment. 2010;15:144–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kroesen M, Molin EJE, Van Wee B. Measuring subjective response to aircraft noise: the effects of survey context. J Acoust Soc Am. 2013;133:238–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Champkin J, Roberts M, Flindell I, Lemasurier P, Senn S. ANASE: measuring aircraft noise annoyance. Significance. 2008;5:92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Janssen SA, Vos H, van Kempen EEMM, Breugelmans ORP, Miedema HME. Trends in aircraft noise annoyance: the role of study and sample characteristics. J Acoust Soc Am. 2011;129:1953–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Schultz TJ. Synthesis of social surveys on noise annoyance. J Acoust Soc Am. 1978;64:377–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fields JM. Langley Research Center., a review of an updated synthesis of noise/annoyance relationships [Microform]/James M. Fields, Langley Research Center; National Technical Information Service, distributor Hampton, Va. : Springfield, Va, 1994.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Miedema HME, Vos H. Exposure-response relationships for transportation noise. J Acoust Soc Am. 1998;104:3432–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Miedema HME, Vos H. Demographic and attitudinal factors that modify annoyance from transportation noise. J Acoust Soc Am. 1999;105:3336–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Fidell S, Barber DS, Schultz TJ. Updating a dosage effect relationship for the prevalence of annoyance due to general transportation noise. J Acoust Soc Am. 1991;89:221–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    WHO, Guidelines for community noise, (1999).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Laszlo HE, McRobie ES, Stansfeld SA, Hansell AL. Annoyance and other reaction measures to changes in noise exposure—a review. Sci Total Environ. 2012;435-436:551–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Quehl J, Basner M. Annoyance from nocturnal aircraft noise exposure: laboratory and field-specific dose–response curves. J Environ Psychol. 2006;26:127–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lim C, Kim J, Hong J, Lee S. Effect of background noise levels on community annoyance from aircraft noise. J Acoust Soc Am. 2008;123:766–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Griefahn B, Bolin K, Flindell I, Lambert J, Lavandier C, Marki F, Müller U. Moderators that influence annoyance of residents near 6 European airports, (2013).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Urban J, Maca V. Linking traffic noise, noise annoyance and life satisfaction: a case study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10:1895–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Michaud DS, Fidell S, Pearsons K, Campbell KC, Keith SE. Review of field studies of aircraft noise-induced sleep disturbance. Noise & Vibration Bulletin. 2008:55–66.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lim C, Kim J, Hong J, Lee S, Lee S. The relationship between civil aircraft noise and community annoyance in Korea. J Sound Vibrat. 2007;299:575–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Fidell S. The Schultz curve 25 years later: a research perspective. J Acoust Soc Am. 2003;114:3007–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Le Masurier P, Bates J, Taylor J, Flindell I, Humpheson D, Pownall C, Woolley A. Attitudes to noise from aviation sources in England (ANASE): Final Report for Department for Transport; 2007.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hume K, Gregg C, Thomas C, Terranova D. Complaints caused by aircraft operations: an assessment of annoyance by noise level and time of day. Journal of Air Transport Management. 2003;9:153–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Fidell S, Mestre V, Sneddon M. A potential role for noise complaints as a predictor of the prevalence of annoyance with aircraft noise. Noise Control Eng. J. 2012;60:62–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Thomas C, Hume K, Hooper P. Quantifying aircraft noise impact on local communities using complaints, (2007).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Maziul M, Job RFS, Vogt J. Complaint data as an index of annoyance - theoretical and methodological issues. Noise and Health. 2005;7:17–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gille L, Marquis-Favre C, Weber R. Aircraft noise annoyance modeling: consideration of noise sensitivity and of different annoying acoustical characteristics. Appl Acoust. 2017;115:139–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Guski R, Felscher-Suhr U, Schuemer R. The concept of noise annoyance: how international experts see it. J. Sound Vibrat. 1999;223:513–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hume K, Morley H, Thomas C. ‘Review of complaints and social surveys at Manchester Airport,’ EEC/SEE/2003/2004, part of 5A project (Attitudes To Aircraft Annoyance Around Airports), 2004. (2004).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bartels S, Márki F, Müller U. The influence of acoustical and non-acoustical factors on short-term annoyance due to aircraft noise in the field—the COSMA study. Sci Total Environ. 2015;538:834–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Airports Council International, Civil Air Navigation Services Organisation, managing the impacts of aviation noise. A guide for airport operators and air navigation service providers, (2015).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sustainable Aviation, The SA Noise road-map. A blueprint for managing noise from aviation sources to 2050, (2014).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Vader R. D/R&D 07/026 Noise annoyance mitigation at airports by non-acoustic measures, (2007).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sánchez D, Naumann J, Porter N, Knowles A. Current issues in aviatio nnoise management: a non-acoustic factors perspective, International C. (2015).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Maris E, Stallen PJ, Vermunt R, Steensma H. Noise within the social context: annoyance reduction through fair procedures. J Acoust Soc Am. 2007;121:2000–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Schreckenberg D, Meis M. Noise annoyance around an international airport planned to be extended, (2007).Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hoeger R, Schreckenberg D, Felscher-Suhr U, Griefahn B. Night-time noise annoyance: State of the art. Noise and Health. 2002;4(15):19.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Schreckenberg D, Meis M. Effects of aircraft noise on noise annoyance and quality of life around Frankfurt Airport, (2006).Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Porter N, Kershaw A, Ollerhead J. The adverse effects of night-time aircraft noise: review of 1992 UK findings and introduction to new UK work, InterNoise 2000. (2000).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Asensio C, Pavón I, Recuero M, Ausejo M. Airport noise insulation programs: the Spanish case. Noise Vib Worldwide. 2012;43:8–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Asensio C, Recuero M, Pavón I. Citizens’ perception of the efficacy of airport noise insulation programmes in Spain. Appl Acoust. 2014;84:107–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Knowles A, Porter N. Developing trust between the local community and airports, Proc. INTER-NOISE—Int. Congr. Expo. Noise control Eng.: Towar. Quieter Future. 2016:852–7.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    London City Airport, Sound insulation scheme guide, (2010).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Davidson S. Spinning the wheel of empowerment, community planning. (1998).Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Homes & Communities Agency—UK Government, Community Community engagement toolkit, (2013).Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    ICAO, Circular for community engagement for aviation environmental management, (Not yet released).Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Eurocontrol, Specification for Collaborative Environmental Management (CEM), (2013).Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Woodward JM, Briscoe LL, Dunholter P. Transportation Research Board, ACRP report 15. Aircraft noise: a toolkit for managing community expectations, ACRP report.15. (2009).Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    United States., Federal Aviation Administration.,Office of Environment and Energy. Community involvement Manual. Washington, D.C.: The Office; 2016.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Burn MM. An assessment of airport community involvement efforts (2005).Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hamburg airport, Hamburg airport noise monitoring system, (2015).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Asensio C, Ausejo M, Jambrosic K, Kang J, Moschioni G, Pagán R, et al. Aircraft noise-monitoring according to ISO 20906: evaluation of uncertainty derived from the human factors affecting event detection. Appl Acoust. 2012;73:1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Asensio C, Recuero M, Ruiz M. Aircraft noise-monitoring according to ISO 20906. Evaluation of uncertainty derived from the classification and identification of aircraft noise events. Appl Acoust. 2012;73:209–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Van Oosten N. IBANET: a new concept of airport noise monitoring, 40th international congress and exposition on noise control engineering 2011. INTER-NOISE 2011. 2011;5:4411–6.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Van Oosten N. IBANET: airport noise monitoring at the service of communities. Proceedings - European Conference on Noise Control. 2012:411–5.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Vogiatzis K. Airport environmental noise mapping and land use management as an environmental protection action policy tool. The case of the Larnaka international airport (Cyprus). Sci Total Environ. 2012;424:162–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    European Parliament, Directive 2002/49/EC of the European Parliament and of the council of 25 June 2002 relating to the assessment and management of environmental noise, (2002).Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hooper P, Flindell I. Exchanging aircraft noise information with local communities around airports:‘the devil is in the detail’! (2013).Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hooper P, Maughan J, Flindell I, Hume K. OMEGA community noise study. Indices to enhance understanding & management of community responses to aircraft noise exposure, (2009).Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Eagan ME. Using supplemental metrics to communicate aircraft noise effects, (2007).Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Goldschagg PL. Using supplemental aircraft noise information to assist airport neighbours understand aircraft noise. Transp Res Part D: Transp Environ. 2013;21:14–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Phun VK, Hirata T, Yai T. Effects of noise information provision on aircraft noise tolerability: results from an experimental study. Journal of Air Transport Management. 2016;52:1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    NLR, Virtual Community Noise Simulator.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Arntzen M, Simons DG. Modeling and synthesis of aircraft flyover noise. Appl Acoust. 2014;84:99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sahai A, Wefers F, Pick S, Stumpf E, Vorländer M, Kuhlen T. Interactive simulation of aircraft noise in aural and visual virtual environments. Appl Acoust. 2016;101:24–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Asensio C, de Arcas G, López JM, Pavón I, Gascó L. Awareness: a parallel approach against noise, ICSV 22. (2015).Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Mediation Forum, The mediation process at Vienna international airport—an overview. (2005).Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Toronto Pearson International Airport, Noise Mitigation Initiatives Engagement Plan.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Fidell S, Silvati L. An assessment of the effect of residential acoustic insulation on prevalence of annoyance in an airport community. J Acoust Soc Am. 1991;89:244–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Rawson R, Hooper PD. The importance of stakeholder participation to sustainable airport master planning in the UK. Environmental Development. 2012;2:36–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Civil Aviation Authority, Managing aviation noise, (2014).Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    London First, Flight path to growth. More flights, less noise: a manifesto for balancing aviation growth and aircraft noise, (2013).Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Aena Aeropuertos, Planes de aislamiento acústico.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Accordino F. The Futurium—a foresight platform for evidence-based and participatory policymaking. Philosophy & Technology. 2013;26:321–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (I2A2)MadridSpain

Personalised recommendations