Degradation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine by UV-Based Advanced Oxidation Processes for Potable Reuse: a Short Review
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The ultraviolet (UV)-based advanced oxidation process (AOP) is a powerful technology commonly utilised in recent potable water reuse (PR) schemes. The AOP involves the generation of highly reactive free radicals (e.g. hydroxyl, HO•) and is primarily applied for the removal of two target trace organic chemicals—N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and 1,4-dioxane — in the PR schemes. Both of these organics are not well removed by the reverse osmosis (RO) process. NDMA is a probable carcinogen and is often present in reclaimed water at concentrations higher than the guidelines established for PR. This review aimed to provide an understanding of the current UV-based advanced oxidation technologies for NDMA removal in PR, their limitations and the future of advanced technologies for their removal. NDMA is readily photolysed by direct UV irradiation, while an AOP such as UV/H2O2 process is necessary for the destruction of 1,4-dioxane. Unfortunately, the generation of hydroxyl radicals through UV photolysis of H2O2 is largely inefficient with conversion on the order of 20% under normal plant operations and the addition of H2O2 (e.g. 3 mg/L) provides only a negligible improvement in NDMA destruction. However, AOP can also be achieved without continuous chemical addition through the application of UV irradiation to heterogeneous photocatalysts (e.g. TiO2). The UV/TiO2 process generates hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen molecules, both of which degrade NDMA into by-products (e.g. methylamine or dimethylamine). Recent studies revealed that modification of the surface morphology of TiO2 can not only enhance NDMA destruction but also alter the composition of the degradation by-products.
KeywordsN-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) Hydroxyl radicals Photocatalytic degradation Potable reuse Titanium oxide 1,4-Dioxane
The authors gratefully acknowledge Dr. Kenneth P. Ishida from Orange County Water District (CA, USA) for his assistance in the preparation of this manuscript.
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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