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Table 1 The most significant storms affecting European forests over the last 30 years [9, 10]

From: The Management Response to Wind Disturbances in European Forests

Storm Year Regions affected Maximum wind speed (m s−1) Timber disturbed (Mill m3)
Vivian (Wiebke) 1990 Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, France, The Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, (marginally northwestern Italy)  > 55.6 60–70
Lothar & Martin 1999 France, Belgium, Germany 71 240
Gudrun (Erwin) 2005 Ireland, Great Britain, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Russia  > 50 75
Kyrill 2007 Ireland, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Austria, Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Switzerland and Poland  > 72 66
Klaus 2009 France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain, Andorra  > 55.6 NA
Xynthia 2010 Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom 32.62 NA
Nicklas 2015 United Kingdome, The Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia 53 NA
Derecho 2017 Poland  > 42 8
David (Fiederike) 2018 France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Poland, Czech Republic 53 NA
Vaia 2018 Italy  > 55.6 6.0–8.0
Sabine (Ciara) 2020 United Kingdom, Ireland, Isle of Man, Spain, Germany, Austria, France, The Netherlands, Poland, Italy, Norway and Sweden 61 NA