Field test study and quasi-static analysis of global characteristics and survivability of a wave energy converter test platform mooring system

Abstract

This study presents a catenary spread mooring system design of a mobile ocean test berth, named the Ocean Sentinel (OS), and developed by the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center to facilitate the ocean testing of wave energy converters (WECs). The original OS mooring design (which was similar to a conventional WEC point absorber mooring system) was evaluated through a field data analysis using a quasi-static approach. The field data analysis on the measurements of mooring tension and environmental conditions collected during an ocean test of the OS is based on a quasi-static analysis of the analytical catenary equations of mooring chains. Both global and survivability characteristics of the mooring system were evaluated. The global characteristics include the influence of the OS excursion on mooring tension, the directional control of the OS, and the environmental contributions of waves, current, and wind. The relationship between the dynamic mooring tension and the environmental conditions of waves and current was quantified through an empirical equation. It was found that the contribution of current to the mooring tension oscillation increased as the current velocity increased and was significant at high current velocity. The survivability characteristics include the anchor movability and strength capacities of mooring lines. Because anchor movement occurred near the end of the field test, a new systematic procedure of designing a mooring system with adequate anchor resistance was developed and applied to improve the OS mooring system design.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

(photos by Dan Hellin)

Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16

References

  1. Ambühl S, Sterndorff M, Sørensen JD (2014) Extrapolation of extreme response for different mooring line systems of floating wave energy converters. Int J Mar Energy 7:1–19

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Amon E, Brekken TKA, von Jouanne A (2011) A power analysis and data acquisition system for ocean wave energy device testing. Renew Energy 36(7):1922–1930. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2010.12.016

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. API (1997) API-RP-2SK recommended practice for design and analysis of stationkeeping systems for floating structures

  4. API (2007) API BULLETIN 2INT-MET interim guidance on hurricane conditions in the Gulf of Mexico

  5. Baker JL (2013) Mooring analysis of the ocean sentinel through field observation and numerical simulation. (Master of Science), Oregon State University

  6. Barltrop ND (ed) (1998) Floating structures: a guide for design and analysis, vol 1. Oilfield Pubns Inc., Ledbury

    Google Scholar 

  7. Brekken TKA, Rhinefrank K, von Jouanne A, Schacher A, Prudell J, Hammagren E (2013) Scaled Development of a novel wave energy converter including numerical analysis and high-resolution tank testing. Proc IEEE 101(4):866–875. https://doi.org/10.1109/jproc.2012.2234711

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. BV (2015) NR 493 DT R03 E classification of mooring systems for permanent and mobile offshore units

  9. CMPT (1998) Floating structures: a guide for the design and analysis

  10. DNV (2013) DNV-OS-E301 position mooring: DET NORSKE VERITAS

  11. Elhanafi A, Macfarlane G, Fleming A, Leong Z (2017) Experimental and numerical investigations on the hydrodynamic performance of a floating-moored oscillating water column wave energy converter. Appl Energy 205:369–390

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Fitzgerald J, Bergdahl L (2007) Considering mooring cables for offshore wave energy conversions. Paper presented at the 7th European wave and tidal energy conference. Oporto, Porto

  13. Gunawardane SDGSP, Folley M, Kankanamge CJ (2019) Analysis of the hydrodynamics of four different oscillating wave surge converter concepts. Renew Energy 130:843–852

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Hald T, Frigaard PB (2001) Forces and overtopping on 2. Generation wave dragon for nissum bredning. Aalborg University, Aalborg

    Google Scholar 

  15. Harnois V, Parish D, Johanning L (2012) Physical measurement of a slow drag of a drag embedment anchor during sea trials. Paper presented at the 4th international conference on ocean energy, Dublin

  16. Harnois V, Johanning L, Thies PR (2013) Wave conditions inducing extreme mooring loads on a dynamically responding moored structure

  17. Harnois V, Weller SD, Johanning L, Thies PR, Le Boulluec M, Le Roux D, Soule V, Ohana J (2015) Numerical model validation for mooring systems: method and application for wave energy converters. Renew Energy 75:869–887. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2014.10.063

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Harris RE, Johanning L, Wolfram J (2004) Mooring systems for wave energy converters: a review of design issues and choices. Paper presented at the Marec 2004. Edinburgh

  19. Johanning L, Smith GH, Wolfram J (2007) Measurements of static and dynamic mooring line damping and their importance for floating WEC devices. Ocean Eng 34(14–15):1918–1934. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2007.04.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Kofoed JP, Frigaard P, Friis-Madsen E, Sorensen HC (2006) Prototype testing of the wave energy converter wave dragon. Renew Energy 31(2):181–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2005.09.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Lehmann M, Elandt R, Shakeri M, Alam R (2014) The wave carpet: development of a submerged pressure differential wave energy converter. Paper presented at the 30th symposium on naval hydrodynamics. Hobart

  22. Lettenmaier T, von Jouanne A, Amon E, Moran S, Gardiner A (2013) Testing the WET-NZ wave energy converter using the ocean sentinel instrumentation buoy. Mar Technol Soc J 47(4):164–176

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Martinelli L, Ruol P, Cortellazzo G (2012) On mooring design of wave energy converters: the seabreath application. Coast Eng Proc 1(33):3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Martins JC, Goulart MM, Gomes MDN, Souza JA, Rocha LAO, Isoldi LA, dos Santos ED (2018) Geometric evaluation of the main operational principle of an overtopping wave energy converter by means of constructal design. Renew Energy 118:727–741

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Ricci P, Rico A, Ruiz-Minguela P, Boscolo F, Villate JL (2012) Design, modelling and analysis of an integrated mooring system for wave energy arrays. In: Paper presented at the in Proceedings of the 4th international conference on ocean energy

  26. Rodríguez R, Gorrochategui I, Vidal C, Guanche R, Cañizal J, Fraguela JA, Díaz V (2011) Anchoring systems for marine renewable energies offshore platforms. Paper presented at the in OCEANS, 2011 IEEE-Spain. Santander

  27. Ruiz-Minguela J, Marion A, Prieto M, Roddriguez R, Ricci P, Fernandez D, Taboada M (2008) Design and testing of the mooring system for a new offshore wave energy converter. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on ocean energy. Brest, France, 15–17 October 2008, pp 1–9

  28. Salcedo F, Ruiz-Minguela P, Rodriguez R, Ricci P, Santos M (2009) Oceantec: sea trials of a quarter scale prototype. In: Paper presented at the in Proceedings of 8th European wave tidal energy conference. Uppsala

  29. SST (2009) Advanced anchoring and mooring study

  30. Thies PR, Johanning L, Harnois V, Smith HCM, Parish DN (2014) Mooring line fatigue damage evaluation for floating marine energy converters: field measurements and prediction. Renew Energy 63:133–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2013.08.050

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. von Jouanne A, Lettenmaier T, Amon E, Brekken T, Phillips R (2013) A novel ocean sentinel instrumentation buoy for wave energy testing. Mar Technol Soc J 47(1):47–54

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Weller S, Hardwick J, Johanning L, Karimirad M, Teillant B, Raventos A, Sheng W (2014) Deliverable 4.1: a comprehensive assessment of the applicability of available and proposed offshore mooring and foundation technologies and design tools for array applications

  33. Zanuttigh B, Angelelli E, Kofoed JP (2013a) Effects of mooring systems on the performance of a wave activated body energy converter. Renew Energy 57:422–431. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2013.02.006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Zanuttigh B, Martinelli L, Castagnetti M (2013) Screening of suitable mooring systems

  35. Zhang X, Tian X, Xiao L, Li X, Chen L (2018a) Application of an adaptive bistable power capture mechanism to a point absorber wave energy converter. Appl Energy 228:450–467

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Zhang X, Lu D, Guo F, Gao Y, Sun Y (2018b) The maximum wave energy conversion by two interconnected floaters: effects of structural flexibility. Appl Ocean Res 71:34–47

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Financial support from the Department of Energy Grant no. DE-FG36-08GO18179-M001 (Small Business Innovative Research and Small Business Technology Transfer) is gratefully acknowledged.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Solomon C. Yim.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lou, J., Yim, S.C., Baker, J. et al. Field test study and quasi-static analysis of global characteristics and survivability of a wave energy converter test platform mooring system. J. Ocean Eng. Mar. Energy 5, 283–300 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40722-019-00140-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Wave energy converter
  • Mooring system design
  • Field data analysis
  • Quasi-static analysis
  • Waves and current loads
  • Anchor movement