Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Assessing Oil Content of Microalgae Grown in Industrial Energetic-Laden Wastewater

  • 86 Accesses

Abstract

Industrial ammunition facilities generate wastewater containing different energetic compounds and nitrogen species. Our previous studies showed that some of these untreated wastewater streams can be mixed at a specific ratio to grow microalgae. In this study, four different untreated wastewater samples from an industrial ammunition facility were mixed and used as a culture media for microalgae, Scenedesmus obliquus ATCC®11477, in 100 L raceway reactors. The main objective of the study was to test the effect of growth parameters (light penetration, nutrient availability and retention times) on the oil content of microalgae in a semi-continuous setting. The raceway reactors were operated under 68–95 μmol/m2/s of light intensity for a 14:10 h light:dark photoperiod, and 60 rpm mixing paddle speed. Continuous monitoring of pH and temperature of the growth medium, periodic analysis of cell density and dry weight of microalgae, and analysis of the medium’s nutrient contents were performed. Biomass harvesting from the raceway reactors was conducted weekly, and the harvested algal biomass was tested for its oil content using an ethanol extraction method. Results showed that nitrogen starvation increased the oil production from 13% to 29% of oil based on the dry weight of biomass, whereas no increment in oil or biomass production was evidenced with the increase of light penetration for the two different retention times tested. This study provided significant information towards microalgae growth in energetic-laden wastewater streams. This study also showed that wastewaters from industrial ammunition facilities can be reused for culturing microalgae, which can be utilized for renewable energy production.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. Abdel-Raouf N, Al-Homaidan AA, Ibrahim IBM (2012) Microalgae and waste water treatment. Saudi J Biol Sci 19(3):257–275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2012.04.005

  2. Abraham J, Lin Y, RoyChowdhury A, Christodoulatos C, Arienti P, Smolinski B, Braida W (2018) Algae toxicological assessment and valorization of energetic-laden wastewater streams using Scenedesmus obliquus. J Clean Prod 202:838–845. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.08.148

  3. Algae Biomass Organization (ABO) (2017) Industrial Algae Measurements: Version 8.0. http://algaebiomass.org/wp-content/gallery/2012-algae-biomass-summit/2017/12/2017_ABO_IAM_Full_v4_LowResSP.pdf. Accessed 15 Mar 2018

  4. Arnold M (ed) (2013) Sustainable algal biomass products by cultivation in waste water flows. VTT Technology 147:1–84 https://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/technology/2013/T147.pdf. Accessed 15 Mar 2018

  5. Cai T, Park SY, Racharaks R, Li Y (2013) Cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina using anaerobic digestion effluent as a nutrient source for biofuel production. Appl Energy 108:486–492. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.03.056

  6. Caporgno MP, Taleb A, Olkiewicz M, Font J, Pruvost J, Legrand J, Bengoa C (2015) Microalgae cultivation in urban wastewater: nutrient removal and biomass production for biodiesel and methane. Algal Res 10:232–239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2015.05.011

  7. Chen GQ, Chen F (2006) Growing phototrophic cells without light. Biotechnol Lett 28(9):607–616. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10529-006-0025-4

  8. Chia SR, Ong HC, Chew KW, Show PL, Phang S-M, Ling TC, Nagarajan D (2005) Cultivating algae for liquid fuel production. http://oakhavenpc.org/cultivating_algae.htm; NREL. Accessed 29 Jan 2018

  9. Chiu S-Y, Kao C-Y, Chen T-Y, Chang Y-B, Kuo C-M, Lin C-S (2015) Cultivation of microalgal Chlorella for biomass and lipid production using wastewater as nutrient resource. Bioresour Technol 184:179–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.11.080

  10. Davis R, Fishman D, Frank ED, Wigmosta MS, Aden A, Coleman AA, Pienkos PT, Skaggs, RJ, Venteris ER, Wang MQ (2012) Renewable diesel from algal lipids: an integrated baseline for cost, emissions, and resource potential from a harmonized model. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/55431.pdf. Accessed 29 Jan 2018

  11. Dong T, Knoshaug EP, Pienkos PT, Laurens MLM (2016) Lipid recovery from wet oleaginous microbial biomass for biodiesel production: a critical review. Appl Energy 177:879–895. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.06.002

  12. Hallenbeck PC, Grogger M, Mraz M, Veverka D (2016) Solar biofuels production with microalgae. Appl Energy 179:136–145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.06.024

  13. Holzinger A, Lütz C (2006) Algae and UV irradiation: effects on ultrastructure and related metabolic functions. Micron 37(3):190–207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micron.2005.10.015

  14. Hongyang S, Yalei Z, Chunmin Z, Xuefei Z, Jinpeng L (2011) Cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in soybean processing wastewater. Bioresour Technol 102(21):9884–9890. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.08.016

  15. Hoogeveen J, Faures J, Giessen N (2009) Increased biofuel production in the coming decade: to what extent will it affect global freshwater resources? Irrig Drain 58:148–160. https://doi.org/10.1002/ird.479

  16. Hu Q, Sommerfeld M, Jarvis E, Ghirardi M, Posewitz M, Seibert M, Darzins A (2008) Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for biofuel production: perspectives and advances. Plant J 54(4):621–639. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03492.x

  17. Kadam KL, Goodall, BL (2013) Algae Extraction Process. US patent: 8,691,912 B1, issued November 26, 2013

  18. Karmakar R, RoyChowdhury A, Kundu K, Chattopadhyay A (2012) Optimization of growth parameters for indigenous algae (for the production of algal biofuel). International Journal of Genetics Engineering and Biotechnology 3(1):1–13

  19. Koutsospyros A, Pavlov J, Fawcett J, Strickland D, Smolinski B, Braida W (2012) Degradation of high energetic and insensitive munitions compounds by Fe/Cu bimetal reduction. J Hazard Mater 219-220:75–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.03.048

  20. Lam MK, Lee KT (2012) Microalgae biofuels: a critical review of issues, problems and the way forward. Biotechnol Adv 30(3):673–690. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2011.11.008

  21. Narala RR, Garg S, Sharma KK, Thomas-Hall SR, Deme M, Li Y, Schenk PM (2016) Comparison of microalgae cultivation in photobioreactor, open raceway pond, and a two-stage hybrid system. Front Energy Res 4:29. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenrg.2016.00029

  22. Pandey RK, Rai A, Kundu K, Karmakar R, Roy P, RoyChowdhury A, Dahake VR (2013) Effect of process parameters for standardization of esterification of cotton seed oil for the production of biodiesel. Int J Curr Sci 2013(8):74–78

  23. RoyChowdhury A, Karmakar R, Kundu K, Dahake VR (2011) Algal biodiesel: future prospects and problems. Water and Energy International 68(11):44–51

  24. RoyChowdhury A, Abraham J, Abimbola T, Lin Y, Christodoulatos C, Lawal A, Arienti P, Smolinski B, Braida W (2018) From waste to energy: optimizing growth of microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus in untreated energetic-laden wastewater streams from an ammunition facility for bioenergy production. Protection and Restoration of the Environment, XIV. 1085–1094. ISBN: 978-960-99922-4-4

  25. Satyanarayana G, Mariano A, Vargas J (2011) Microalgae, a versatile source for sustainable energy and materials. Int J Energy Res 35(4):291–311. https://doi.org/10.1002/er.1695

  26. Shuba ES, Kifle D (2018) Microalgae to biofuels: promising alternative and renewable energy, review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 81:743–755

  27. Singh SP, Singh P (2015) Effect of temperature and light on the growth of algae species: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 50:431–444

  28. Tan X-B, Zhao X-C, Zhang Y-L, Zhou Y-Y, Yang L-B, Zhang W-W (2018) Enhanced lipid and biomass production using alcohol wastewater as carbon source for cultivation in Chlorella pyrenoidosa anaerobically digested starch wastewater in outdoors. Bioresour Technol 247:784–793. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.09.152

  29. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 8330B (SW-846) (2006) Nitroaromatics, nitramines, and nitrates esters by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). http://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-07/documents/epa-8330b.pdf. Accessed 15 March 2018

  30. Wang S-K, Wang X, Miao J, Tian Y-T (2018) Tofu whey wastewater is a promising basal medium for microalgae culture. Bioresour Technol 253:79–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.01.012

  31. Xin L, Hong-Ying H, Yu-Ping Z (2011) Growth and lipid accumulation properties of a freshwater microalga Scenedesmus sp. under different cultivation temperature. Bioresour Technol 102(3):3098–3102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.10.055

  32. Xu H, Miao X, Wu Q (2006) High quality biodiesel production from a microalga Chlorella protothecoides by heterotrophic growth in fermenters. J Biotechnol 126(4):499–507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2006.05.002

  33. Yap BHJ, Crawford SA, Dumsday G, Scales PJ, Martin GJO (2014) A mechanistic study of algal cell disruption and its effect on lipid recovery by solvent extraction. Algal Res 5:112–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2014.07.001

  34. Yeesang C, Cheirsilp B (2011) Effect of nitrogen, salt, and iron content in the growth medium and light intensity on lipid production by microalgae isolated from freshwater sources in Thailand. Bioresour Technol 102(3):3034–3040. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.10.013

  35. Yoshimura T, Okada S, Honda M (2013) Culture of the hydrocarbon producing microalga Botryococcus braunii strain Showa: optimal CO2, salinity, temperature, and irradiance conditions. Bioresour Technol 133:232–239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.01.095

  36. Zekriardehani S, Jabarin SA, Gidley DR, Coleman MR (2017) Effect of chain dynamics, crystallinity, and free volume on the barrier properties of poly (ethylene terephthalate) biaxially oriented films. Macromolecules 50(7):2845–2855. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.macromol.7b00198

Download references

Acknowledgements

An initial version of the paper has been presented in the “International Conference on Protection and Restoration of the Environment XIV”, July 3rd to 6th, 2018, Thessaloniki, Greece. This work was supported by the Consortium for Energy, Environment and Demilitarization (CEED) contract number SINIT-15-0013. Authors would like to thank Dr. Amalia Terracciano and Dr. Tsan-Liang Su for their analytical help, and Ms. Zhaoyu Zheng, and Dr. Athula Attygalle and the Center for Mass Spectrometry (Stevens Institute of Technology) for ESI-MS scan analysis. Authors would also like to thank Valicor Inc. for their assistance in developing method for the gravimetric and qualitative analysis of oil.

Author information

Correspondence to Washington Braida.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

RoyChowdhury, A., Abraham, J., Abimbola, T. et al. Assessing Oil Content of Microalgae Grown in Industrial Energetic-Laden Wastewater. Environ. Process. 6, 969–983 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40710-019-00396-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Industrial wastewater
  • Energetic compounds
  • Microalgae
  • Raceway reactor
  • Algal oil