Advertisement

College students’ cognitive learning outcomes in flipped classroom instruction: a meta-analysis of the empirical literature

  • Yinghui Shi
  • Yanqiong Ma
  • Jason MacLeod
  • Harrison Hao YangEmail author
Article

Abstract

The concept of the flipped classroom has generated considerable interest in the educational context in recent years, especially in higher education. However, research to date has been controversial with regard to the effectiveness of flipped classroom instructions on college student learning outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to identify high-quality empirical publications that examine the learning outcomes of college students and to utilize meta-analyses to determine the overall effectiveness of flipped classroom instructions. A systematic database search that included the Web of Science, the Education Resources Information Center, and Elsevier ScienceDirect, was conducted to identify peer-reviewed studies that met the inclusion criteria. A total of 33 studies were included in this systematic review. Two reviewers independently performed both study identification and data extraction. The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.3 software, and the calculated effect sizes showed that flipped classroom instructions can positively influence college students’ cognitive learning outcomes compared to traditional lectures. Moderator variable analysis suggests that the pedagogical approach was the only significant factor examined that influences the effectiveness of flipped classroom instruction. These results indicate that the flipped classroom instructional model helps college students to improve their cognitive learning across a wide-reaching synthesis of currently available interdisciplinary research reports. The flipped classroom was also found to be more effective when instructors integrate individualized active and collaborative pedagogical approaches.

Keywords

Flipped classroom Inverted classroom Reverse classroom Cognitive learning Higher education Meta-analyses 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Humanities and Social Science project (Project No. 18YJC880074).

References

  1. Albert, M., & Beatty, B. J. (2014). Flipping the classroom applications to curriculum redesign for an introduction to management course: Impact on grades. Journal of Education for Business, 89(8), 419–424.Google Scholar
  2. Altman, D. G., & Bland, J. M. (2005). Standard deviations and standard errors. British Medical Journal, 331(7521), 903.Google Scholar
  3. Aşıksoy, G., & Özdamli, F. (2016). Flipped classroom adapted to the arcs model of motivation and applied to a physics course. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 12(6), 1589–1603.Google Scholar
  4. Awidi, I., & Paynter, M. (2019). The impact of a flipped classroom approach on student learning experience. Computers & Education, 128, 269–283.Google Scholar
  5. Balaban, R. A., Gilleskie, D. B., & Tran, U. (2016). A quantitative evaluation of the flipped classroom in a large lecture principles of economics course. The Journal of Economic Education, 47(4), 269–287.Google Scholar
  6. Baytiyeh, H., & Naja, M. K. (2017). Students’ perceptions of the flipped classroom model in an engineering course: A case study. European Journal of Engineering Education, 42(6), 1048–1061.Google Scholar
  7. Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2009). Remixing chemistry class: Two Colorado teachers make podcasts of their lectures to free up class time for hands-on activities. Learning and Leading with Technology, 36(4), 22–27.Google Scholar
  8. Bishop, J. L., & Verleger, M. A. (2013, June). The flipped classroom: A survey of the research. Paper presented at the American Society of Engineering Education (ASEE) Annual Conference, Atlanta, GA. Retrieved from https://www.asee.org/search/proceedings
  9. Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P. T., & Rothstein, H. R. (2009). Introduction to meta-analysis. Chichester, England: Wiley.Google Scholar
  10. Bouroumi, A., & Fajr, R. (2014). Collaborative and cooperative e-learning in higher education in Morocco: A case study. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 9(1), 66–72.Google Scholar
  11. Boyraz, S., & Ocak, G. (2017). Implementation of flipped education into Turkish EFL teaching context. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 13(2), 426–439.Google Scholar
  12. Charlton, B. G. (2006). Lectures are such an effective teaching method because they exploit evolved human psychology to improve learning. Medical Hypotheses, 67(6), 1261–1265.Google Scholar
  13. Cilli-Turner, E. (2015). Measuring learning outcomes and attitudes in a flipped introductory statistics course. Primus, 25(9–10), 833–846.Google Scholar
  14. Cochrane Collaboration. (2014). Review Manager (Version 5.3) [Computer software]. Retrieved from https://community.cochrane.org/help/tools-and-software/revman-5/revman-5-download.
  15. Cotta, K. I., Shah, S., Almgren, M. M., Macías-Moriarity, L. Z., & Mody, V. (2016). Effectiveness of flipped classroom instructional model in teaching pharmaceutical calculations. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 8(5), 646–653.Google Scholar
  16. Crimmins, M. T., & Midkiff, B. (2017). High structure active learning pedagogy for the teaching of organic chemistry: Assessing the impact on academic outcomes. Journal of Chemical Education, 94(4), 429–438.Google Scholar
  17. Day, L. J. (2018). A gross anatomy flipped classroom effects performance, retention, and higher-level thinking in lower performing students. American Association of Anatomists., 11(6), 565–574.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ase.1772.Google Scholar
  18. Eichler, J. F., & Peeples, J. (2016). Flipped classroom modules for large enrollment general chemistry courses: A low barrier approach to increase active learning and improve student grades. Chemistry Education Research & Practice, 17(1), 197–208.Google Scholar
  19. Ekmekci, E. (2017). The flipped writing classroom in Turkish EFL context: A comparative study on a new model. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 18(2), 151–167.Google Scholar
  20. El-Banna, M. M., Whitlow, M., & Mcnelis, A. M. (2017). Flipping around the classroom: Accelerated Bachelor of Science in nursing students’ satisfaction and achievement. Nurse Education Today, 56, 41–46.Google Scholar
  21. Enfield, J. (2013). Looking at the impact of the flipped classroom model of instruction on undergraduate multimedia students at CSUN. TechTrends, 57(6), 14–27.Google Scholar
  22. Entezari, M., & Javdan, M. (2016). Active learning and flipped classroom, hand in hand approach to improve students learning in human anatomy and physiology. International Journal of Higher Education, 5(4), 222–231.Google Scholar
  23. Flipped Learning Network. (2014). The four pillars of F-L-I-P™. Retrieved from http://www.flippedlearning.org/definition
  24. Freeman, S., Eddy, S. L., McDonough, M., Smith, M. K., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., et al. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United State of America, 111(23), 8410–8415.Google Scholar
  25. Galvis, A. H., McIntyre, C., & Hsi, S. (2006). Framework for the design and delivery of effective global blended learning experiences. Report prepared for the World Bank group, human resources leadership and organizational effectiveness unit. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  26. Galway, L. P., Corbett, K. K., Takaro, T. K., Tairyan, K., & Frank, E. A. (2014). Novel integration of online and flipped classroom instructional models in public health higher education. BMC Medical Education, 14(1), 181.Google Scholar
  27. Gilies, R. M., Ashman, A. F., & Terwel, J. (2008). The teacher’s role in implementing cooperative learning in the classroom. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  28. Gillette, C., Rudolph, M., Kimble, C., Rockich-Winston, N., Smith, L., & Broedel-Zaugg, K. (2018). A meta-analysis of outcomes comparing flipped classroom and lecture. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 82(5), 433–440.Google Scholar
  29. He, W., Holton, A., Farkas, G., & Warschauer, M. (2016). The effects of flipped instruction on out-of-class study time, exam performance, and student perceptions. Learning & Instruction, 45, 61–71.Google Scholar
  30. Heuett, W. J. (2017). Flipping the math classroom for non-math majors to enrich their learning experience. Primus, 27(10), 889–907.Google Scholar
  31. Hew, K. F., & Lo, C. K. (2018). Flipped classroom improves student learning in health professions education: A meta-analysis. BMC Medical Education, 18(1), 38.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-018-1144-z.Google Scholar
  32. Heyborne, W. H., & Perrett, J. J. (2016). To flip or not to flip? Analysis of a flipped classroom pedagogy in a general biology course. Journal of College Science Teaching, 45(4), 31–37.Google Scholar
  33. Higgins, J. P., Thompson, S. G., Deeks, J. J., & Altman, D. G. (2003). Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. British Medical Journal, 327(7414), 557–560.Google Scholar
  34. Horn, M. (2013). The transformational potential of flipped classrooms: Different strokes for different folks. Education Next, 13, 78–79.Google Scholar
  35. Hughes, Y., & Lyons, N. (2017). Does the flipped classroom improve exam performance in medical education? A systematic review. MedEdPublish, 6(2), 38.  https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2017.000100.Google Scholar
  36. Hung, H. T. (2015). Flipping the classroom for English language learners to foster active learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 28(1), 81–96.Google Scholar
  37. Jackson, C. K., & Bruegmann, E. (2009). Teaching students and teaching each other: The importance of peer learning for teachers. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 1(4), 85–108.  https://doi.org/10.1257/app.1.4.85.Google Scholar
  38. Kay, R., MacDonald, T., & DiGiuseppe, M. (2018). A comparison of lecture-based, active, and flipped classroom teaching approaches in higher education. Journal of Computing in Higher Education..  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-018-9197-x.Google Scholar
  39. Kennedy, E., Beaudrie, B., Ernst, D. C., & St. Laurent, R. (2015). Inverted pedagogy in second semester calculus. Problems, Resources, and Issues in Mathematics Undergraduate Studies, 25(9–10), 892–906.Google Scholar
  40. Kim, M. K., Kim, S. M., Khera, O., & Getman, J. (2014a). The experience of three flipped classrooms in an urban university: An exploration of design principles. Internet and Higher Education, 22, 37–50.Google Scholar
  41. Kim, G. J., Patrick, E. E., Srivastava, R., & Law, M. (2014b). Perspective on flipping circuits I. IEEE Transactions on Education, 57(3), 188–192.Google Scholar
  42. Köroğlu, Z. C., & Cakir, A. (2017). Implementation of flipped instruction in language classrooms: An alternative way to develop speaking skills of pre-service English language teachers. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, 13(2), 42–55.Google Scholar
  43. Korpershoek, H., Harms, T., de Boer, H., van Kuijk, M., & Doolaard, S. (2016). A meta-analysis of the effects of classroom management strategies and classroom management programs on students’ academic, behavioral, emotional, and motivational outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 86(3), 643–680.Google Scholar
  44. Krahenbuhl, K. S. (2017). An engaging, yet failed flip. Journal of Scholarly Teaching, 12, 132–144.Google Scholar
  45. Lage, M. J., Platt, G. J., & Treglia, M. (2000). Inverting the classroom: A gateway to creating an inclusive learning environment. Journal of Economic Education, 31(1), 30–43.Google Scholar
  46. Lambert, C. (2012). Twilight of the lecture. Harvard Magazine, MarchApril. Retrieved from http://harvardmagazine.com/2012/03/twilight-of-the-lecture
  47. Larson, S., & Yamamoto, J. (2013). Flipping the college spreadsheet skills classroom: Initial empirical results. Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences, 4(10), 751–758.Google Scholar
  48. Lax, N., Morris, J., & Kolber, B. J. (2017). A partial flip classroom exercise in a large introductory general biology course increases performance at multiple levels. Journal of Biological Education, 51(4), 412–426.Google Scholar
  49. Liebert, C. A., Lin, D. T., Mazer, L. M., Bereknyei, S., & Lau, J. N. (2016). Effectiveness of the surgery core clerkship flipped classroom: A prospective cohort trial. American Journal of Surgery, 211(2), 451–457.Google Scholar
  50. Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis (Vol. 49). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc.Google Scholar
  51. Lo, C. K., & Hew, K. F. (2017). A critical review of flipped classroom challenges in K-12 education: Possible solutions and recommendations for future research. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 12(1), 4.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s41039-016-0044-2.Google Scholar
  52. Maciejewski, W. (2016). Flipping the calculus classroom: An evaluative study. Teaching Mathematics & Its Applications, 35(4), 187–201.Google Scholar
  53. Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., & Baki, M. (2013). The effectiveness of online and blended learning: A meta-analysis of the empirical literature. Teachers College Record, 115(3), 1–47.Google Scholar
  54. Michaelowa, K. (2010). Primary education quality in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa: Determinants of learning achievement and efficiency considerations. World Development, 29(10), 1699–1716.Google Scholar
  55. Morton, D. A., & Colbert-Getz, J. M. (2017). Measuring the impact of the flipped anatomy classroom: The importance of categorizing an assessment by bloom’s taxonomy. Anatomical Sciences Education, 10(2), 170–175.Google Scholar
  56. Munawaroh, (2017). The influence of teaching methods and learning environment to the student’s learning achievement of craft and entrepreneurship subjects at vocational high school. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 12(4), 665–678.Google Scholar
  57. Ng, E. M. W. (2018). Integrating self-regulation principles with flipped classroom pedagogy for first year university students. Computers & Education, 126, 65–74.Google Scholar
  58. O’Flahrety, J., & Phillips, C. (2015). The use of flipped classroom instruction in higher education: A scoping review. The Internet and Higher Education, 25, 85–95.Google Scholar
  59. Ojennus, D. D. (2015). Assessment of learning gains in a flipped biochemistry classroom. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 44(1), 20–27.Google Scholar
  60. Olitsky, N. H., & Cosgrove, S. B. (2016). The better blend? Flipping the principles of microeconomics classroom. International Review of Economics Education, 21, 1–11.Google Scholar
  61. Özpinar, İ., Yenmez, A. A., & Gökçe, S. (2016). An application of flipped classroom method in the instructional technologies and material development course. Journal of Education & Training Studies, 4(12), 213–226.Google Scholar
  62. Peplow, M. (2017). Social Sciences suffer from severe publication bias. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/news/social-sciences-suffer-from-severe-publication-bias-1.15787.
  63. Peterson, D. J. (2016). The flipped classroom improves student achievement and course satisfaction in a statistics course a quasi-experimental study. Teaching of Psychology, 43(1), 10–15.Google Scholar
  64. Pierce, R., & Fox, J. (2012). Vodcasts and active-learning exercises in a “flipped classroom” model of a renal pharmacotherapy module. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76(10), 1–5.Google Scholar
  65. Prince, M. (2004). Does active learning work? A review of the research. Journal of Engineering Education, 93(3), 223–231.Google Scholar
  66. Prøitz, T. S. (2010). Learning outcomes: What are they? Who defines them? When and where are they defined? Educational Assessment Evaluation & Accountability, 22(2), 119–137.Google Scholar
  67. Rahman, A. A., Aris, B., Mohamed, H., Zaid, N. M. (2014, December). The influences of flipped classroom: A meta analysis. In 2014 IEEE 6th Conference on Engineering Education (ICEED) (pp. 24–28). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: IEEE.Google Scholar
  68. Ramnanan, C. J., & Pound, L. D. (2017). Advances in medical education and practice: Student perceptions of the flipped classroom. Advances in Medical Education and Practice, 8, 63–73.Google Scholar
  69. Richardson, D. (2008). Don’t dump the didactic lecture; fix it. Advances in Physiology Education, 32(1), 23–24.  https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00048.2007.Google Scholar
  70. Ryan, M. D., & Reid, S. A. (2016). Impact of the flipped classroom on student performance and retention: A parallel controlled study in general chemistry. Journal of Chemical Education, 93(1), 13–23.Google Scholar
  71. Şengel, E. (2016). To flip or not to flip: Comparative case study in higher education in turkey. Computers in Human Behavior, 64, 547–555.Google Scholar
  72. Shi, Y., Wang, S., Ma, Y., MacLeod, J., & Yang, H. H. (2018, July) College Students’ learning outcomes in flipped classroom instruction: A literature review. In 2018 International Symposium on Educational Technology (ISET) (pp. 78–81). IEEE. http://doi.org/10.1109/ISET.2018.00026
  73. Smith, M. L., & Glass, G. V. (1977). Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcome studies. American Psychologist, 32, 752–760.Google Scholar
  74. Stains, M., Harshman, J., Barker, M. K., Chasteen, S. V., Cole, R., & Young, A. M. (2018). Anatomy of STEM teaching in North American universities. Science, 359(6383), 1468–1470.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aap8892.Google Scholar
  75. Strayer, J. F. (2012). How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation, innovation and task orientation. Learning Environments Research, 15(2), 171–193.Google Scholar
  76. Sun, J. C. Y., & Wu, Y. T. (2016). Analysis of learning achievement and teacher-student interactions in flipped and conventional classrooms. International Review of Research in Open & Distance Learning, 17(1), 79–99.Google Scholar
  77. Tan, C., Yue, W. G., & Fu, Y. (2017). Effectiveness of flipped classrooms in nursing education: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Chinese Nursing Research, 4(4), 192–200.Google Scholar
  78. Tucker, B. (2012). The flipped classroom. Education Next, 12(1), 82–83.Google Scholar
  79. Tune, J. D., Sturek, M., & Basile, D. P. (2013). Flipped classroom model improves graduate student performance in cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal physiology. Advances in Physiology Education, 37(4), 316–320.Google Scholar
  80. Wang, C. X., Dong, Q., & Wu, F. (2018). A meta-analysis of the effects of mobile learning on students’ learning performance. Journal of Distance Education, 2, 67–75.  https://doi.org/10.15881/j.cnki.cn33-1304/g4.2018.02.007.Google Scholar
  81. Wasserman, N. H., Quint, C., Norris, S. A., & Carr, T. (2017). Exploring flipped classroom instruction in calculus III. International Journal of Science & Mathematics Education, 15(3), 545–568.Google Scholar
  82. Weaver, G. C., & Sturtevant, H. G. (2015). Design, implementation, and evaluation of a flipped format general chemistry course. Journal of Chemical Education, 92(9), 1437–1448.Google Scholar
  83. Webb, M., & Doman, E. (2016). Does the flipped classroom lead to increased gains on learning outcomes in ESL/EFL contexts? The CATESOL Journal, 28(1), 39–67.Google Scholar
  84. Wen, A. S., Zaid, N. M., & Harun, J. (2015, August). A meta-analysis on students’ social collaborative knowledge construction using flipped classroom model. In 2015 IEEE conference on e-Learning, e-Management and e-Services (pp. 58–63). Melaka, Malaysia: IEEE.Google Scholar
  85. Yu, Z., & Wang, G. (2016). Academic achievements and satisfaction of the clicker-aided flipped business English writing class. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 19(2), 298–312.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Beijing Normal University 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yinghui Shi
    • 1
  • Yanqiong Ma
    • 2
  • Jason MacLeod
    • 3
  • Harrison Hao Yang
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.National Engineering Research Centre for E-LearningCentral China Normal UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.School of Educational Information TechnologyCentral China Normal UniversityWuhanChina
  3. 3.D’Youville CollegeBuffaloUSA
  4. 4.School of EducationState University of New York at OswegoOswegoUSA

Personalised recommendations