Skip to main content

A Mixed Data Analysis of Graduate Student Mentoring for Faculty Careers in School Psychology

Abstract

Mentoring has been identified as an essential component in the development and success of future faculty. As such, the purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the mentoring experiences of graduate students enrolled in school psychology programs. Additionally, we wanted to determine if differences were present in the mentoring experiences of self-identified racial minority students and their White peers given the lack of diversity among school psychology faculty. Quantitative analyses indicated that students enrolled in school psychology programs are fairly satisfied with their mentoring experiences. However, respondents who completed the open-ended questions indicated that they had difficulty accessing their mentor, they wanted more mentoring on careers in academia, and that they desired more support for conducting research and teaching. Therefore, there are several aspects of mentoring that need to be improved if the field of school psychology wants to increase the number of students who will peruse a career in higher education.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Alvarez, A. N., Blume, A. W., Cervantes, J. M., & Thomas, L. R. (2009). Tapping the wisdom tradition: essential elements to mentoring students of color. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(2), 181–188.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barrett, T. G., & Smith, T. (2008). Southern coup: recruiting African American faculty members at an elite private Southern research university. American Educational Research Journal, 45, 946–973.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Beeks, A., & Graves, S. L. (2017). Academic leaderships views of school psychology and black students: the case of historically black colleges and universities. Psychology in the Schools, 54(6), 612–623.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bigelow, J., & Johnson, W. B. (2001). Promoting mentor-protégé relationship formation in graduate school. The Clinical Supervisor, 20(1), 1–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blake, J. J., Graves, S., Newell, M., & Jimerson, S. R. (2016). Diversification of school psychology: developing an evidence base from current research and practice. School Psychology Quarterly, 31, 305–310.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chandler, D. R. (2011). Proactively addressing the shortage of blacks in psychology: highlighting the school psychology subfield. Journal of Black Psychology, 37, 99–127.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clark, R. A., Harden, S. L., & Johnson, W. B. (2000). Mentor relationship in clinical psychology doctoral training: Results of a national survey. Teaching of Psychology, 27, 262–268.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clark, C., Mercer, S. H., Zeigler-Hill, V., & Dufrene, B. A. (2012). Barriers to the success of ethnic minority students in school psychology graduate programs. School Psychology Review, 41, 176–192.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clopton, & Haselhuhn, C. (2009). School psychology trainer shortage in the USA: current status and projections for the future. School Psychology International, 30, 24–42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coleman, S., & Stevenson, H. C. (2013). The racial stress of membership: development of the faculty inventory of racialized experiences in schools. Psychology in the Schools, 50(6), 548–566.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Graves, S. L. (2009). Albert Sidney Beckham: the first African American school psychologist. School Psychology International, 30, 5–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Graves, S., & Wright, L. (2007). Comparison of individual factors in school psychology graduate students: why do students pursue a degree in school psychology. Psychology in the Schools, 44, 865–872.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Graves, S. L., & Wright, L. B. (2009). Historically black colleges and university students’ and faculties’ views of school psychology: Implications for increasing diversity in higher education. Psychology in the Schools, 46, 616–626.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Graves, S. L., & Wright, L. B. (2013). A qualitative study of racially diverse school psychology faculty experiences in the professoriate: implications for increasing diversity in higher education. Trainers’ Forum, 31, 29–46.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hayes, A. F., & Krippendorff, K. (2007). Answering the call for a standard reliability measure for coding data. Communication Methods and Measures, 1, 77–89.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jacobi, M. (1991). Mentoring and undergraduate academic success: a literature review. Review of Educational Research, 61(4), 505–532.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, W. B. (2007). On being a mentor: a guide for higher education faculty. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson-Bailey, J., & Cervero, R. M. (2004). Mentoring in Black and White: the intricacies of cross-cultural mentoring. Mentoring and Tutoring, 12, 7–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leech, N. L., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2008). Qualitative data analysis: a compendium of techniques and a framework for selection for school psychology research and beyond. School Psychology Quarterly, 23, 587–604.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lincoln, Y . S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

  • Malone, C. M., Jacobs, D., & Sullivan, A. L. (2010). Mentorship for culturally and linguistically diverse school psychology graduate students. (STUDENT CONNECTIONS)(report). Communique, 39(3), 31.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maton, K. I., Wimms, H. E., Grant, S. K., Wittig, M. A., Rogers, M. R., & Vasquez, M. J. T. (2011). Experiences and perspectives of African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students: a national study. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17, 68–78.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mccoy, D. L., Winkle-Wagner, R., & Luedke, C. L. (2015). Colorblind mentoring? Exploring. White faculty mentoring of students of color. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 8, 225–242.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Milkman, K. L., Akinola, M., & Chugh, D. (2015). What happens before? A field experiment exploring how pay and representation differentially shape bias on the pathway into organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100, 1678–1712.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Neville, H. A., Gallardo, M. E., & Sue, D. W. E. (2016). The myth of racial color blindness: manifestations, dynamics, and impact. American Psychological Association.

  • Patton, M. Q. (2002). In M. Q. Patton (Ed.), Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Proctor, S. L., & Truscott, S. D. (2012). Reasons for African American student attrition from school psychology programs. Journal of School Psychology, 50, 655–679.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Proctor, S. L., Simpson, C. M., Levin, J., & Hackimer, L. (2014). Recruitment of diverse students in school psychology programs: directions for future research and practice. Contemporary School Psychology, 18, 117–126.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Proctor, S. L., Kyle, J., Fefer, K., & Lau, C. (2018a). Examining racial microaggressions, race/ethnicity, gender, and bilingual status with school psychology students: the role of intersectionality. Contemporary School Psychology, 22, 355–368.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Proctor, S. L., Nasir, A., Wilson, T., Li, K., & Castrillon, P. (2018b). Retention and persistence of African-American students in school psychology programs. Psychology in the Schools, 55, 506–522.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shapiro, E. S., & Blom-Hoffman, J. (2004). Mentoring, modeling, and money: the 3 Ms of producing academics. School Psychology Quarterly, 19, 365–381.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stark, K., Perfect, M., Simpson, J., Schnoebelen, S., & Glenn, R. (2004). Encouraging academic careers: one of many desirable career options for doctoral school psychologists. School Psychology Quarterly, 19, 382–397.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zambrana, R. E., Ray, R., Espino, M. M., Castro, C., Douthirt Cohen, B., & Eliason, J. (2015). “Don’t leave us behind”: the importance of mentoring for underrepresented minority faculty. American Educational Research Journal, 52, 40–72.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zellers, D. F., Howard, V. M., & Barcic, M. A. (2008). Faculty mentoring programs: reenvisioning rather than reinventing the wheel. Review of Educational Research, 78, 552–588.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Scott L. Graves Jr.

Ethics declarations

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Graves, S.L., Newell, M., Harrell, F. et al. A Mixed Data Analysis of Graduate Student Mentoring for Faculty Careers in School Psychology. Contemp School Psychol 25, 99–108 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40688-019-00253-0

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40688-019-00253-0

Keywords

  • Mentoring
  • Diversity
  • Faculty recruitment
  • Graduate students