Executive functioning (EF) skills are vital for academic success. Along with the recent explosion of interventions targeting these skills comes the need for affordable, efficient, and ecologically valid measures for planning and tailoring interventions and monitoring outcomes. The current study describes the refinement and initial psychometric evaluation of the Executive Skills Questionnaire-Revised (ESQ-R), a self-report EF rating scale that integrates current scientific understanding of core EF processes with an ecologically valid understanding of EF skills (ESs) that is directly applicable to academic contexts and tasks and tied to available interventions. We describe reduction of an initial 61-item pool to a final 25-item version using a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with 347 participants. Psychometric evidence for the 25-item version is promising, with excellent internal consistency (alpha = .91), adequate test-retest reliability for a small subsample (.70 with no effects of time delay on score variability), moderate correlations with other EF rating scales (.56–.74) and psychological symptom scales (.38–.55), and a significant correlation with academic engagement (− .40).
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The authors received no external funding for this study.
Conflict of Interest
Julia Englund Strait, Ph.D., declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Peg Dawson, Ed.D., is a co-author of the original ESQ rating scales and the books where they appear.
Christine AP Walther, Ph.D., declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Gerald Gill Strait, Ph.D., declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Amy K. Barton declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Maryellen Brunson McClain, Ph.D., declares that she has no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent and, when appropriate for age, parental consent and child assent were obtained for all individual participants included in the study in procedures approved by the university IRB (Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects or CPHS).
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Strait, J.E., Dawson, P., Walther, C.A.P. et al. Refinement and Psychometric Evaluation of the Executive Skills Questionnaire-Revised. Contemp School Psychol 24, 378–388 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40688-018-00224-x
- Executive functioning