The Benefits of Movement for Youth: a Whole Child Approach
- 1.9k Downloads
This paper synthesizes studies on the benefits of movement on youth’s health, cognition, and academic performance. It discusses behavioral and cognitive outcomes of different types of movement activities including physical activities integrated into teaching of academic content, classroom exercise breaks, afterschool exercise programs, and active recess. Empirical evidence points out that movement-based activities are low-cost and easily implemented interventions to improve youth’s physical and mental health, learning, executive functioning, memory, on-task behavior, and academic performance. School psychologists can play an active role in educating policymakers, school personnel, youth, and parents regarding the benefits of movement and create a school culture that celebrates an active lifestyle.
KeywordsMovement-based activities Physical exercise Physical and mental health Cognitive functions Academic performance Children and adolescents
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The authors certify that no funding has been received for the conduct of this study and/or preparation of this manuscript. The authors do not have any interests that might be interpreted as influencing the research.
- Bronson, M. (2000). Self-regulation in early childhood: nature and nurture. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Budde, H., Voelcker-Rehage, C., Pietrassyk-Kendziorra, S., Machado, S., Ribeiro, P., & Arafat, A. M. (2010). Steroid hormones in the saliva of adolescents after different exercise intensities and their influence on working memory in a school setting. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35(3), 382–391.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carter, T., Morres, I., Repper, J., & Callaghan, P. (2015). Exercise for adolescents with depression: valued aspects of perceived change. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 1–8. doi: 10.1111/jpm.12261.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2012). Physical activity resources for health professionals. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/professionals/index.html.
- Chaddock, L., Erickson, K. I., Prakash, R. S., Kim, J. S., Voss, M. W., VanPatter, M., & Kramer, A. F. (2010). A neuroimaging investigation of the association between aerobic fitness, hippocampal volume, and memory performance in preadolescent children. Brain Research, 1358, 172–183. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.08.049.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Davis, C. L., Tomporowski, P. D., McDowell, J. E., Yanasak, N. E., Allison, J. D., & Naglieri, J. A. (2011). Exercise improves executive function and achievement and alters brain activation in overweight children: a randomized control trial. Health Psychology, 30(1), 91–98.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Donnelly, J. E., Greene, J. L., Gibson, C. A., Smith, B. K., Wahsburn, R. A., Sullivan, D. K., & Williams, S. L. (2009). Physical activity across the curriculum (PAAC): a randomized controlled trial to promote physical activity and diminish overweight and obesity in elementary school children. Preventative Medicine, 49(4), 336–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Duronijić, M., & Válková, H. (2010). The influence of early intervention movement programs on motor skills development in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 40, 37–47.Google Scholar
- Erwin, H., Fedewa, H., & Ahn, S. (2013). Student academic performance outcomes of a classroom physical activity intervention: a pilot study. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 5(2), 109–124.Google Scholar
- Hjorth, M. F., Chaput, J.-P., Ritz, C., Dalskov, S.-M., Andersen, R., Astrup, A., Tetens, I., Michaelsen, K. F., & Sjödin, A. (2014). Fatness predicts decreased physical activity and increased sedentary time, but not vice versa: support from a longitudinal study in 8- to 11-year-old children. International Journal of Obesity, 38(7), 959–965. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2013.229.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Institute of Medicine (IOM). (2013). Educating the student body: taking physical activity and physical education to school. Washington: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Janssen, I., & LeBlanc, A. G. (2010). Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7(40), 1–16.Google Scholar
- Janssen, M., Chinapaw, M. J. M., Rauh, S. P., Toussaint, H. M., van Mechelen, W., & Verhagen, E. A. L. M. (2014). A short physical activity break from cognitive tasks increases selective attention in primary school children aged 10–11. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 7, 129–134. doi: 10.1016/j.mhpa.2014.07.00.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kaiser, M. L., Schoemaker, M. M., Albaret, J. M., & Geuze, R. H. (2015). What is the evidence of impaired motor skills and motor control among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Systematic review of the literature. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 36, 338–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Khalife, N., Kantomaa, M., Glover, V., Tammelin, T., Laitinen, J., Ebeling, H., Hurtig, T., Jarvelin, M.-R., & Rodriguez, A. (2014). Childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms are risk factors to obesity and physical inactivity in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescence Psychiatry, 53(4), 425–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kuczala, M., & Lengel, T. (2010). The kinesthetic classroom: teaching and learning through movement. Thousand Oaks: Corwin.Google Scholar
- Lee, S. M., Burgeson, C. R., Fulton, J. E., & Spain, C. G. (2007). Physical education and physical activity: results from the school health policies and programs study 2006. Journal of School Health, 435–63.Google Scholar
- Martínez-Vizcaíno, V., Sánchez-López, M., Notario-Pacheco, B., Salcedo-Aguilar, F., Solera-Martínez, M., Franquelo-Morales, P., & Rodríguez-Artalejo, F. (2014). Gender differences on effectiveness of a school-based physical activity intervention for reducing cardiometabolic risk: a cluster randomized trial. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11, 154. doi: 10.1186/s12966-014-0154-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Patterson, J. (2013). Many schools cutting back on physical education. Retrieved from Las Vegas Review-Journal: http://www.reviewjournal.com/news/education/many-schools-cutting-back-physical-education
- Pontifex, M. B., Kamijo, K., Scudder, M. R., Ranie, L. B., Khan, N. A., Hemrick, B., & Hillman, C. H. (2014b). The differential association of adiposity and fitness with cognitive control in preadolescent children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 79(4), 72–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ratey, J., & Hagerman, E. (2008). Spark: the revolutionary new science of exercise and the brain. New York: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
- Reed, J. A., Einstein, G., Hahn, E., Hooker, S. P., Gross, V. P., & Kravitz, J. (2010). Examining the impact of integrating physical activity on fluid intelligence and academic performance in an elementary school setting: a preliminary investigation. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 7(3), 343–351.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reid, M.-A., MacCormack, J., Cousins, S., & Freeman, J. G. (2015). Physical activity, school climate, and the emotional health of adolescents: findings from 2010 Canadian health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) study. School Mental Health, 7(3), 224–234. doi: 10.1007/s12310-015-9150-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shonkoff, J. P., & Phillips, D. A. (2000). From neurons to neighbourhoods: the science of early childhood development. Washington: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Steinberger, J., & Daniels, S. R. (2003). Obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk in children: an American Heart Association scientific statement from the atherosclerosis, hypertension and obesity in the young committee (Council on cardiovascular disease in the young) and the diabetes committee (Council on nutrition, physical activity and metabolism). Circulation, 107(10), 1448–1453.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2008). 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/guidelines.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). The Surgeon General’s vision for a healthy and fit nation. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General. Retrieved from http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/priorities/healthy-fit-nation/obesityvision2010.pdf.
- Wijtzes, A. I., Bouthoorn, S. H., Jansen, W., Franco, O. H., Hofman, A., Jaddoe, V. W. V., & Raat, H. (2014). Sedentary behaviors, physical activity behaviors, and body fat in 6-year-old children: the Generation R Study. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11, 96. doi: 10.1186/s12966-014-0096-x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Wilson, D. K., Evans, A. E., Williams, J., Mixon, G., & Sirard, J. R. (2005). Preliminary test of a student-centered intervention on increasing physical activity in underserved adolescents. Annals of Behavioral Medicine: A publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 30(2), 119–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar