Bullying Among Middle School Children Raised by Grandparents
- 518 Downloads
Empirical research investigating the growing population of children raised by grandparents remains sparse. Much of the research examines the grandparents’ functioning and suggests that they experience heightened psychosocial distress. Although the children are reported to manifest psychosocial and behavioral difficulty, a dearth of empirical research investigates their perceptions of their peer relationships or bullying involvement. Research suggests the children’s developmental trajectory is likely influenced by their potential for insecure attachment. In this study, a nationally representative US sample of 4552 seventh- and eighth-grade children raised by their grandparents obtained from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey is examined. The results reveal that head-of-household arrangement is associated with the children’s self-reported perceptions of bullying behavior. Children raised by grandparents will likely benefit from bullying prevention programs that take into account the specific dynamics, such as insecure attachment, associated with living in this alternate family arrangement.
KeywordsBullying Victimization Middle school Children raised by grandparents Grandparents raising grandchildren
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This is an unfunded study.
Conflict of Interest
The author of this manuscript declares no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Bretherton, I., & Munholland, K. A. (1999). Internal working models in attachment relationships: a construct revisited. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 89–114). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Craig, W., Harel-Fisch, Y., Fogel-Grinvald, H., Dastaler, S., Hetland, J., Simons-Morten, B., et al. (2009). A cross-national profile of bullying and victimization among adolescents in 40 countries. International Journal of Public Health, 54, S216–S224. doi: 10.1007/s00038-009-5413-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Demaray, M. K., & Malecki, C. K. (2003). Perceptions of the frequency and importance of social support by students classified as bullies, victims, and bully/victims in an urban middle school. School Psychology Review, 32, 471–489.Google Scholar
- Edwards, O. W. (1998). Helping grandkin—granchildren raised by grandparents: expanding psychology in the schools. Psychology in the Schools, 35(2), 173–181. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6807(199804)35:2<173::AID-PITS9>3.0.CO;2-Q.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gladstone, G. L., Parker, G. B., & Malhi, G. S. (2006). Do bullied children become anxious and depressed adults?: A cross-sectional investigation of the correlates of bullying and anxious depression. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 194(3), 201–208. doi: 10.1097/01.nmd.0000202491.99719.c3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Iannotti, R. J. (2010). Health behavior in school-aged children (HBSC), 2009-2010—codebook: student survey. United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human DevelopmentGoogle Scholar
- Nansel, T. R., Craig, W., Overpeck, M. D., Saluja, G., Ruan, W. J., & the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Bullying Analyses Working Group. (2004). Cross-national consistency in the relationship between bullying behaviors and psychosocial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 158, 730–736.Google Scholar
- National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network. (2005). Duration and developmental timing of poverty and children’s cognitive and social development from birth through third grade. Child Development, 76(4), 795–810. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00878.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Olweus, D., & Limber, S. P. (2010). The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: implementation and evaluation over two decades. In S. R. Jimerson, S. M. Swearer, & D. L. Espelage (Eds.), Handbook of bullying in schools: an international perspective (pp. 377–401). New York, NY US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
- Roberts, C., Freeman, J., Samdal, O., Schnohr, C. W., de Looze, M. E., Gabhainn, N. S., Iannotti, R., Rasmussen, M., & International HBSC Study Group. (2009). The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: methodological developments and current tensions. International Journal of Public Health, 54(2), 140–150.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Smith, G. C., & Hancock, G. R. (2010). Custodial grandmother-grandfather dyads: pathways among marital distress, grandparent dysphoria, parenting practice, and grandchild adjustment. Family Relations: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 59(1), 45–59. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2009.00585.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Spriggs, A. L., Iannotti, R. J., Nansel, T. R., & Haynie, D. L. (2007). Adolescent bullying involvement and perceived family, peer and school relations: commonalities and differences across race/ethnicity. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(3), 283–293. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.04.009.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Sroufe, L., Carlson, E. A., Levy, A. K., & Egeland, B. (2003). Implications of attachment theory for developmental psychopathology. In M. E. Hertzig & E. A. Farber (Eds.), Annual progress in child psychiatry and child development: 2000–2001 (pp. 43–61). New York, NY, US: Brunner-Routledge.Google Scholar
- U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). Table C4: children with grandparents by presence of parents, sex, race, and Hispanic origins for selected characteristics. 2010 Current Population Survey, 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/hh-fam/cps2010.html