Effects of Elemental Alloying on Surface Integrity in Joining of Composite Powders with Heterogeneous Titanium Substrates Using Selective Laser Melting


This work outlines advances in material savings on lightweight structure when using additive manufacturing technology in conjunction with laser melting for joining and strengthening of layered Ti-6Al-4V composite powders on commercially pure Ti substrates. The migration of the extrinsic elemental alloys in the titanium composite powders strengthens the matrix structure, particularly in the heat affected zone beneath the joining surface. In the analysis of the main effect and variance (ANOVA), the optimised operating parameters for preferable energy density could increase the elemental migration (aluminium: ~ 3.63 at%, vanadium: ~ 3.31 at%) with appreciable penetration depth, high microhardness (> 440 HV0.3) and a strengthened microstructure. In the confirmation tests, high tensile strength was achieved (1119.2 MPa) with high microhardness (> 440 HV0.3) through the strengthening effects produced by the proper elemental migration under the application of high energy density (> 650 kW/mm3). The composite structure of the lamellar microstructure and phase transformation induced by the Al and V elements spreading into the α-titanium matrix in the substrate are presented and discussed in the variety of parameter combinations.

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\(\dot{E}_{generate}\) :

Exerted energy

\(\dot{E}_{in, net}\) :

Energy input

\(\dot{E}_{storage}\) :

The stored energy

\(P_{laser}\) :

Average input laser power

T :


U :

Internal energy

\(\dot{W}_{out,net}\) :

Output work

c :

Specific heat capacity

\(dV\) :

Product of \(dw\), \(dh\), \(dv\) and \(dt\)

h :

Layer thickness

k :

Thermal conductivity

t :


\(v\) :

Scanning speed

w :

Hatch distance

\(\gamma_{repetition}\) :


ρ :



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The authors would like to thank the Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology for providing financial support (MOST 107-2221-E-011-093). We would also like to express our gratitude to the postgraduate students, Mr. Anchun Chiang and Mr. Kuoming Lu, for their technical advice and support in the experimental work.

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Correspondence to Chunliang Kuo.

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Kuo, C., Ye, P. & Liu, J. Effects of Elemental Alloying on Surface Integrity in Joining of Composite Powders with Heterogeneous Titanium Substrates Using Selective Laser Melting. Int. J. of Precis. Eng. and Manuf.-Green Tech. 7, 815–827 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40684-019-00174-6

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  • Selective laser melting
  • Composite powder
  • Mechanical strength
  • Elemental migration
  • Microhardness
  • Microstructure