Microstructure-Properties Relationships of Ti-6Al-4V Parts Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting

Abstract

This work investigates the relationships between the static mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V manufactured through selective laser melting (SLM) and post-process heat treatments, namely stress relieve, annealing and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). In particular, Ti-6Al-4V parts were fabricated in three different build orientations of X, Z, and 45° to investigate the multi-directional mechanical properties. The results showed that fully densified Ti-6Al-4V parts with densities of up to 99.5% were obtained with optimized SLM parameters. The microstructure of stress relieved and mill annealed samples was dominated by fine α′ martensitic needles. After HIP treatment, the martensite structure was fully transformed into α and β phases (α+β lamellar). Within the realm of tensile properties, the yield and ultimate strength values were found statistically similar with respect to the built orientation for a given heat treatment. However, the ductility was found orientation dependent for the HIP samples, where a lower value was observed for samples built in the X direction.

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Correspondence to Mathieu Brochu.

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Justin Mezzetta M.Sc. candidate in the Department of Mining and Materials Engineering at McGill University. His research interest is to develop a processing plan to optimize mechanical performance of titanium components formed through selective laser melting.

Joon-Phil Choi Postdoc researcher in the Department of Mining and Materials Engineering at McGill University. His research focuses on preparation and synthesis of metallic powder and development of net-shaping technology of metallic powder including metal injection molding and additive manufacturing.

Jason Milligan Postdoc researcher in the Department of Mining and Materials Engineering at McGill University. His research interest is additive manufacturing technology for aerospace components.

Jason Danovitch M.Sc. candidate in the Department of Mining and Materials Engineering at McGill University. His research interests are residual stress measurements, geometric deformation analysis, and thermal cycling of Ti6Al4V fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM).

Nejib Chekir Ph.D. student in the Department of Mining and Materials Engineering at McGill University. His research interest is laser beam welding technology for aerospace applications.

Alexandre Bois-Brochu R&D project manager in Centre de métallurgie du Québec. His research interests are additive manufacturing and mechanical metal forming processes, including direct metal deposition, ultrasonic welding, forging, extrusion, and rolling.

Yaoyao Fiona Zhao Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at McGill University. Her research interests are in the general area of design and manufacturing, including the exploration of new design methods, the use of advanced technologies, and the integration of better computer software and metrology tools to improve production.

Mathieu Brochu Associate Professor in the Department of Mining and Materials Engineering at McGill University. His research interests are fundamental modeling and processing-related research, and industrially-driven programs aiming at increasing the utilization and service performance of real-scale components fabricated from powder materials.

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Mezzetta, J., Choi, J., Milligan, J. et al. Microstructure-Properties Relationships of Ti-6Al-4V Parts Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting. Int. J. of Precis. Eng. and Manuf.-Green Tech. 5, 605–612 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40684-018-0062-1

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Keywords

  • Selective laser melting
  • Titanium
  • Heat treatment
  • Microstructure
  • Hot isostatic pressing