Experimental Investigation of Concave and Convex Micro-Textures for Improving Anti-Adhesion Property of Cutting Tool in Dry Finish Cutting

  • Zhengyang KangEmail author
  • Yonghong Fu
  • Yun Chen
  • Jinghu Ji
  • Hao Fu
  • Shulin Wang
  • Rui Li
Regular Paper


Tool-chip adhesion impacts on cutting performance significantly, especially in finish cutting process. To promote cutting tools’ anti-adhesion property, the concave micro-grooves texture (MGT) and convex volcano-like texture (VLT) were fabricated separately on lathe tools’ rake faces by laser surface texturing (LST). Various orientations of MGT and different area densities (9% and 48%) and regions (partial and full) of VLT were considered in textured patterns designing. The following orthogonal cutting experiments, machining of aluminum alloy 5038, analyzed tools’ performances including cutting force, cutting stability, chip shape, rake face adhesion and abrasion. It indicated that under dry finish cutting conditions, MGT contributed to cutting stability and low cutting forces, meanwhile friction and normal force reduced by around 15% and 10%, respectively with a weak correlation to the grooves’ orientation. High density VLT tools, on the other hand, presented an obvious anti-adhesion property. A 5 μm reduction of crater wear’s depth can be observed on textured rake faces after long length cutting and textured rake faces presented half size of BUE regions comparing to the flat tool, however, once the texture morphologies were filled or worn, the anti-adhesion effect could be invalid. The bearing ratio curve was employed to analysis tool-chip contact and durability of textured surfaces contributing to a better understanding of anti-adhesion and enhanced durability of the textured tools.


Laser surface texture Cutting tools Finish cutting Anti-adhesion Wear resistance 



Normal force


Friction force


Friction coefficient at the rake face


Root mean square of cutting force


Standard deviation of cutting force


Average roughness


Peak material component


Valley material component


Core roughness depth


Reduced peak height


Reduced valley depth


Material filled peak area


Lubricant filled valley area


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bhowmick, S. and Alpas, A. T., “Minimum Quantity Lubrication Drilling of Aluminium–Silicon Alloys in Water Using Diamond-Like Carbon Coated Drills,” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 48, Nos. 12–13, pp. 1429–1443, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shahabi, H. and Ratnam, M., “In-Cycle Detection of Built-Up Edge (BUE) from 2-D Images of Cutting Tools Using Machine Vision,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 46, Nos. 9–12, pp. 1179–1189, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bandyopadhyay, B., “Mechanism of Formation of Built-Up Edge,” Precision Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 148–151, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Byrne, G., Dornfeld, D., and Denkena, B., “Advancing Cutting Technology,” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 52, No. 2, pp. 483–507, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fukui, H., Okida, J., Omori, N., Moriguchi, H., and Tsuda, K., “Cutting Performance of DLC Coated Tools in Dry Machining Aluminum Alloys,” Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 187, No. 1, pp. 70–76, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yoshimura, H., Toda, Y., Moriwaki, T., Shibasaka, T., and Okida, J., “Study on Near Dry Cutting of Aluminum Alloys,” Machining Science and Technology, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 289–299, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Enomoto, T. and Sugihara, T., “Improving Anti-Adhesive Properties of Cutting Tool Surfaces by Nano-/Micro-Textures,” CIRP Annals, Vol. 59, No. 1, pp. 597–600, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Oishi, K., “Built-Up Edge Elimination in Mirror Cutting of Hardened Steel,” Journal of Engineering for Industry, Vol. 117, No. 1, pp. 62–66, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rahim, E. and Sasahara, H., “A Study of the Effect of Palm Oil as MQL Lubricant on High Speed Drilling of Titanium Alloys,” Tribology International, Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 309–317, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kümmel, J., Gibmeier, J., Müller, E., Schneider, R., Schulze, V., et al., “Detailed Analysis of Microstructure of Intentionally Formed Built-Up Edges for Improving Wear Behaviour in Dry Metal Cutting process of Steel,” Wear, Vol. 311, Nos. 1–2, pp. 21–30, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kumar, A. S., Durai, A. R., and Sornakumar, T., “Wear Behaviour of Alumina Based Ceramic Cutting Tools on Machining Steels,” Tribology International, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 191–197, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kiyota, H., Itoigawa, F., Endo, S., and Nakamura, T., “Analytical Approach for Optimization of Chamfered Cutting Tool Preparation Considering Built-Up Edge Extrusion Behavior,” International Journal of Automotive Technology, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 329–336, 2013.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Atlati, S., Haddag, B., Nouari, M., and Moufki, A., “Effect of the Local Friction and Contact Nature on the Built-Up Edge Formation Process in Machining Ductile Metals,” Tribology International, Vol. 90, pp. 217–227, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Merklein, M., Andreas, K., and Steiner, J., “Influence of Tool Surface on Tribological Conditions in Conventional and Dry Sheet Metal Forming,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 131–137, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Etsion, I., “State of the Art in Laser Surface Texturing,” Journal of Tribology, Vol. 127, No. 1, pp. 248–253, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jiang, X. J. and Whitehouse, D. J., “Technological Shifts in Surface Metrology,” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 61, No. 2, pp. 815–836, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fatima, A. and Mativenga, P. T., “Assessment of Tool Rake Surface Structure Geometry for Enhanced Contact Phenomena,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 69, Nos. 1–4, pp. 771–776, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chang, W., Sun, J., Luo, X., Ritchie, J. M., and Mack, C., “Investigation of Microstructured Milling Tool for Deferring Tool Wear,” Wear, Vol. 271, Nos. 9–10, pp. 2433–2437, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kawasegi, N., Sugimori, H., Morimoto, H., Morita, N., and Hori, I., “Development of Cutting Tools with Microscale and Nanoscale Textures to Improve Frictional Behavior,” Precision Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 248–254, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wei, Y., Kim, M.-R., Lee, D.-W., Park, C., and Park, S. S., “Effects of Micro Textured Sapphire Tool Regarding Cutting Forces in Turning Operations,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 141–147, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sugihara, T. and Enomoto, T., “Improving Anti-Adhesion in Aluminum Alloy Cutting by Micro Stripe Texture,” Precision Engineering, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 229–237, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kümmel, J., Braun, D., Gibmeier, J., Schneider, J., Greiner, C., et al., “Study on Micro Texturing of Uncoated Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools for Wear Improvement and Built-Up Edge Stabilisation,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 215, pp. 62–70, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bhushan, B. and Jung, Y. C., “Natural and Biomimetic Artificial Surfaces for Superhydrophobicity, Self-Cleaning, Low Adhesion, and Drag Reduction,” Progress in Materials Science, Vol. 56, No. 1, pp. 1–108, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Parker, A. R. and Lawrence, C. R., “Water Capture by a Desert Beetle,” Nature, Vol. 414, No. 6859, pp. 33–34, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lee, S. H., Lee, J. H., Park, C. W., Lee, C. Y., Kim, K., et al., “Continuous Fabrication of Bio-Inspired Water Collecting Surface via Roll-Type Photolithography,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 119–124, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ridgway, S. H. and Carder, D. A., “Features of Dolphin Skin with Potential Hydrodynamic Importance,” IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 83–88, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ma, J., Duong, N. H., and Lei, S., “Numerical Investigation of the Performance of Microbump Textured Cutting Tool in Dry Machining of AISI 1045 Steel,” Journal of Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 19, pp. 194–204, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kim, D. M., Lee, I., Kim, S. K., Kim, B. H., and Park, H. W., “Influence of a Micropatterned Insert on Characteristics of the Tool–Workpiece Interface in a Hard Turning Process,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 229, pp. 160–171, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kang, Z., Fu, Y., Ji, J., and Tian, L., “Numerical Investigation of Microtexture Cutting Tool on Hydrodynamic Lubrication,” Journal of Tribology, Vol. 139, No. 5, Paper No. 054502, 2017.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chu, W.-S., Kim, C.-S., Lee, H.-T., Choi, J.-O., Park, J.-I., et al., “Hybrid Manufacturing in Micro/Nano Scale: A Review,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 75–92, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kim, M., Lee, S. M., Lee, S. J., Kim, Y. W., and Lee, D. W., “Effect on Friction Reduction of Micro/Nano Hierarchical Patterns on Sapphire Wafers,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 27–35, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Du, D., He, Y., Sui, B., Xiong, L., and Zhang, H., “Laser Texturing of Rollers by Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 161, No. 3, pp. 456–461, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Inogamov, N. A., Zhakhovsky, V. V., Khokhlov, V. A., Petrov, Y. V., and Migdal, K. P., “Solitary Nanostructures Produced by Ultrashort Laser Pulse,” Nanoscale Research Letters, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 1–13, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dai, D. and Gu, D., “Influence of Thermodynamics within Molten Pool on Migration and Distribution State of Reinforcement during Selective Laser Melting of AlN/AlSi10Mg Composites,” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 100, pp. 14–24, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Xie, J., Luo, M.-J., He, J.-L., Liu, X.-R., and Tan, T.-W., “Micro-Grinding of Micro-Groove Array on Tool Rake Surface for Dry Cutting of Titanium Alloy,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Vol. 13, No. 10, pp. 1845–1852, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Obikawa, T., Kamio, A., Takaoka, H., and Osada, A., “Micro-Texture at the Coated Tool Face for High Performance Cutting,” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 51, No. 12, pp. 966–972, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kang, Z., Fu, Y., Ji, J., and Wang, H., “Characterisation of Group Behaviour Surface Texturing with Multi-Layers Fitting Method,” Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 235–246, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Davim, J. P., “Surface Integrity in Machining,” Springer, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Xing, Y., Deng, J., Feng, X., and Yu, S., “Effect of Laser Surface Texturing on Si3N4/TiC Ceramic Sliding Against Steel under Dry Friction,” Materials & Design, Vol. 52, No. 24, pp. 234–245, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kim, S. S. and Lee, H. G., “Tribological Behaviors of Carbon Composite Grooved Surfaces,” Composite Structures, Vol. 71, No. 2, pp. 238–245, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Enomoto, T., Sugihara, T., Yukinaga, S., Hirose, K., and Satake, U., “Highly Wear-Resistant Cutting Tools with Textured Surfaces in Steel Cutting,” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 61, No. 1, pp. 571–574, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zhang, Y., Wang, X., Li, H., and Wang, B., “Adhesive Behavior of Micro/Nano-Textured Surfaces,” Applied Surface Science, Vol. 329, pp. 174–183, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Petropoulos, G., Torrance, A., and Pandazaras, C., “Abbott Curves Characteristics of Turned Surfaces,” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 237–243, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Precision Engineering 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringJiangsu UniversityZhenjiang, JiangsuChina
  2. 2.Chengdu Tools Research Institute Co., Ltd.SichuanChina

Personalised recommendations