Investigation of Varying Particle Sizes of Dry-Deposited WO3 Particles in Relation to Performance of Electrochromic Cell

  • Kwangmin Kim
  • Dahyun Choi
  • Hyungsub Kim
  • Minji Lee
  • Wonshik Chu
  • Sung-Hoon Ahn
  • Doo-Man Chun
  • Caroline Sunyong LeeEmail author
Regular Paper


Electrochromic cells were fabricated via a nanoparticle deposition system (NPDS) using different particle sizes of monoclinic tungsten oxide (WO3). Mixtures of micro- and nano-sized WO3 powders in the ratios of WO3 (micro):WO3 (nano) = 9:1, 5 : 5 and 1 : 9 vol%, were used in this study. NPDS, which was used to fabricate the electrochromic layer, is a low-cost process that can cover a large deposition area and provides a highly porous film. This method can replace sol-gel and sputtering methods, which are expensive and have environmental issues. The WO3 electrochromic layers displayed different surface structures that could adsorb Li+ ions. The transmittance change, cyclic switching speed and coloration efficiency (CE) results demonstrated that the electrochromic cell made with the mixed WO3 (micro):WO3 (nano) powders had better performance than that of the electrochromic cell made with separate micro-sized single powders. Various analyses showed that the WO3 mixed powders contained larger sites for Li+ ion adsorption compared with the single-sized powder because of a structure consisting of a compact layer of micro-WO3 with a porous layer of nano-WO3. Consequently, a cell composed of mixed-particle electrochromic layer showed higher transmittance change, CE and electrochromic performance than a cell made with a micro-sized single powder.


Antimony-doped tin oxide Electrochromic Kinetic spray technique Particle size control Tungsten oxide 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Park, S.-I., Quan, Y.-J., Kim, S.-H., Kim, H., Kim, S., et al., “A Review on Fabrication Processes for Electrochromic Devices,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 397–421, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kim, H., Kim, K., Choi, D., Lee, M., Chu, W.-S., et al., “Microstructural Control of the Electrochromic and Ion Storage Layers on the Performance of an Electrochromic Device Fabricated by the Kinetic Spray Technique,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 231–238, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Monk, P., Mortimer, R., and Rosseinsky, D., “Electrochromism and Electrochromic Devices,” Cambridge University Press, 2007.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baetens, R., Jelle, B. P., and Gustavsen, A., “Properties, Requirements and Possibilities of Smart Windows for Dynamic Daylight and Solar Energy Control in Buildings: A State-of-the-Art Review,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 87–105, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jensen, J., Hösel, M., Dyer, A. L., and Krebs, F. C., “Development and Manufacture of Polymer-Based Electrochromic Devices,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 25, no. 14, pp. 2073–2090, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Granqvist, C., Azens, A., Hjelm, A., Kullman, L., Niklasson, G. A., et al., “Recent Advances in Electrochromics for Smart Windows Applications,” Solar Energy, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 199–216, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Granqvist, C. G., “Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials,” Elsevier, 1995.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kamal, H., Akl, A., and Abdel-Hady, K., “Influence of Proton Insertion on the Conductivity, Structural and Optical Properties of Amorphous and Crystalline Electrochromic WO3 Films,” Physica B: Condensed Matter, vol. 349, Nos. 1–4, pp. 192–205, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chun, D.-M., Kim, M.-H., Lee, J.-C., and Ahn, S.-H., “A Nano-Particle Deposition System for Ceramic and Metal Coating at Room Temperature and Low Vacuum Conditions,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 51–53, 2008.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chun, D.-M., Choi, J.-O., Lee, C. S., Kanno, I., Kotera, H., et al., “Nano-Particle Deposition System (NPDS): Low Energy Solvent-Free Dry Spray Process for Direct Patterning of Metals and Ceramics at Room Temperature,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1107–1112, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chun, D.-M., Choi, J.-O., Lee, C. S., and Ahn, S.-H., “Effect of Stand-Off Distance for Cold Gas Spraying of Fine Ceramic Particles (< 5 μm) under Low Vacuum and Room Temperature Using Nanoparticle Deposition System (NPDS),” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 206, Nos. 8–9, pp. 2125–2132, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chun, D.-M. and Ahn, S.-H., “Deposition Mechanism of Dry Sprayed Ceramic Particles at Room Temperature Using a Nano-Particle Deposition System,” Acta Materialia, vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 2693–2703, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Song, W., Jung, K., Chun, D.-M., Ahn, S.-H., and Lee, C. S., “Nanoparticle Deposition of Al2O3 Powders on Various Substrates,” Materials Transactions, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 2680–2684, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim, H., Yang, S., Ahn, S.-H., and Lee, C. S., “Effect of Particle Size on Various Substrates for Deposition of NiO Film via Nanoparticle Deposition System,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 600, pp. 109–118, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Patil, C., Tarwal, N., Jadhav, P., Shinde, P., Deshmukh, H., et al., “Electrochromic Performance of the Mixed V2O5-WO3 Thin Films Synthesized by Pulsed Spray Pyrolysis Technique,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 389–395, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yu, W., Lee, Y., Lee, Y. H., Cho, G. Y., Park, T., et al., “Performance Enhancement of Thin Film LSCF Cathodes by Gold Current Collecting Layer,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 185–188, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ji, S., Ha, J., Park, T., Kim, Y., Koo, B., et al., “Substrate-Dependent Growth of Nanothin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Toward Cost-Effective Nanostructuring,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 35–39, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lin, S.-H., Chen, F.-R., and Kai, J.-J., “Electrochromic Properties of Nano-Structured Nickel Oxide Thin Film Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Method,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 254, no. 7, pp. 2017–2022, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jiao, Z., Wang, J., Ke, L., Liu, X., Demir, H. V., et al., “Electrochromic Properties of Nanostructured Tungsten Trioxide (Hydrate) Films and their Applications in a Complementary Electrochromic Device,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 63, pp. 153–160, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ozkan, E., Lee, S.-H., Liu, P., Tracy, C. E., Tepehan, F. Z., et al., “Electrochromic and Optical Properties of Mesoporous Tungsten Oxide Films,” Solid State Ionics, vol. 149, Nos. 1–2, pp. 139–146, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lee, J., Yim, C., Lee, D. W., and Park, S. S., “Manufacturing and Characterization of Physically Modified Aluminum Anodes Based air Battery with Electrolyte Circulation,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 53–57, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Precision Engineering 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials EngineeringHanyang UniversityGyeonggi-doRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringSeoul National UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.School of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of UlsanUlsanRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations