Innovative micro products essential for the utilization of a wide variety of macro subjects have complicated three-dimensional (3D) microstructures in addition to a high aspect ratio. Till date, many micro manufacturing processes have been developed, but a specific class of such processes is applicable for fabrication of true 3D micro assembly. The aptitude to process a broad range of materials and the ability to fabricate functional and geometrically complicated, 3D microstructures provides the additive manufacturing (AM) processes which significant profits over traditional methods, such as lithography-based or micromachining approaches investigated widely in the past. In this paper, 3D micro-AM processes have been classified into three main groups, including scalable micro-AM systems, 3D direct writing, and hybrid processes, and the key processes have been reviewed comprehensively. Principle and recent progress of each 3D micro-AM process have been described, and the advantages and disadvantages of each process have low-cost along with its occupational health safety & environmental issues.
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Sharma, A., Mondal, S., Mondal, A.K. et al. 3D printing: It’s microfluidic functions and environmental impacts. Int. J. of Precis. Eng. and Manuf.-Green Tech. 4, 323–334 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40684-017-0038-6
- 3D microfluidic devices
- Additive manufacturing
- Occupational health
- Environmental management
- 3D printing