From 3D to 4D printing – design, material and fabrication for multi-functional multi-materials
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In the era of multi-dimensional digital printing technology, engineering by multilayered ‘top-down’ methodologies are redefining manufacturing processes at multi-scale levels with atomic precision permitting unprecedented freedom to design complex structures at will. This challenges the current perception of conventional machining processes for unconventional materials (e.g. smart-stimuli responsive materials) that pose limitations in closing the gap between manufacturing processes and the increasing demand for rapid assembly procedures, miniaturized and cost-effective products predicted for emerging industries supplying innovative products to a rising population of end users. Driven by a growing need for customization, printing technologies are dynamically changing to meet the demands of a global market. Here, the conceptualization of 4D printing (4DP) platform and its impact on manufacturing scales and processes are discussed. Further, a ‘new’ conceptual insight into 4DP, high precision material design and the ‘envisioned’ roadmap for 4DP manufacturing is proposed.
Keywords3D printing 4D printing Geometry Shape responsive material Smart material
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