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Environmental impact assessment of composite small craft manufacturing using the generic work breakdown structure

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An Erratum to this article was published on 12 October 2016


The number of studies on the environmental impact of products and services has increased in order to protect the environment. Recently, environmental impact assessments (EIA) and life cycle assessments (LCA), typically used for evaluating environmental impacts, have been gaining in popularity. Accordingly, this study performed an EIA using LCA methodology focusing on the manufacture of composite small craft. A work breakdown structure (WBS) is used in most shipyards to manage the overall life cycle of a craft. Therefore, for the EIA performed as part of this study, the generic WBS for environment (GWBSE) was defined by utilizing existing shipyard information. Unlike a general WBS with a determined structure, the GWBSE structure supports different combinations depending on the objectives; the EIA can be performed by combining different methods, materials, and product structures used in the manufacturing process for composite craft. Further, this study developed an application to effectively perform EIA utilizing GWBSE. The EIA was performed according to the manufacturing method and the combination of materials used for small leisure craft; the results were then analyzed.

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Index of generic object


Index of manufacturing process


Index of material choice


Index of environmental indicator


Total number of generic objects


Total number of environmental indicators

EI jk :

Environmental impact value of the target product against to the manufacturing process j and material k

p ijkl :

Environmental impact score of generic object i, manufacturing process j, material choice k, environmental indicator l

w l :

Weighted value of environmental indicator l

r i :

Proportion ratio of generic object i


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Correspondence to Dong Kun Lee.

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An erratum to this article can be found at

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Nam, S., Lee, D.K., Jeong, YK. et al. Environmental impact assessment of composite small craft manufacturing using the generic work breakdown structure. Int. J. of Precis. Eng. and Manuf.-Green Tech. 3, 261–272 (2016).

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