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Energy-saving method of parallel mechanism by redundant actuation


This paper presents a novel energy-saving method of a robotic system utilizing parallel mechanism by redundant actuation. The redundantly actuated system can distribute arbitrary actuating torques in a certain combination. By using this feature, the regenerative power dissipation and electric power loss are reduced. Moreover, the redundant actuation can reduce the peak torque of actuating joints. This feature reduces the friction loss because we can use a smaller gear reducer. A parallel manipulator with two degrees of freedom is simulated as a case study. The energy consumption of the robotic system is modeled by analyzing the type of energy consumption in actuation systems. An optimization process is proposed to maximize the energy-saving effect. The results show that 26.1% of electric energy can be saved by redundant actuation.


τ :

Load torque at the actuating joint

τ u :

Load torque vector of the non-redundant actuation

τ r :

Load torque vector of the redundant actuation

τ f :

Friction torque in the harmonic drive

τ m :

Load torque at the motor

q u , q v :

Angle vectors of the independent and dependent joint of non-redundant actuation, respectively

q r :

Angle vector of the actuating joint of redundant actuation

\(\dot q\) :

Rotation velocity of the actuating joint

\({\dot q_m}\) :

Rotation velocity of the motor

Γ :

Jacobian mapping from the joint velocity vector of nonredundant actuation to that of redundant actuation


Transfer matrix from the independent and dependent joint vectors to the whole joint vectors


Selection matrix for the actuating joints from the whole joint vectors


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Correspondence to Giuk Lee.

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Lee, G., Sul, SK. & Kim, J. Energy-saving method of parallel mechanism by redundant actuation. Int. J. of Precis. Eng. and Manuf.-Green Tech. 2, 345–351 (2015).

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  • Parallel machines
  • Redundant actuation
  • Energy efficiency
  • Manipulators