Advertisement

Influence of tool surface on tribological conditions in conventional and dry sheet metal forming

  • Marion Merklein
  • Kolja Andreas
  • Jennifer SteinerEmail author
Article

Abstract

The realization of lubricant free forming processes is motivated by an increasing demand for resource efficiency and higher environmental standards. Further potentials are the reduction of production steps and time. The dry conditions lead to an intensive interaction between tool and workpiece. Increasing friction and wear are the consequences. One approach to face these challenges is the implementation of tailored tool surfaces. Within this study the behavior of different tool surfaces under dry and lubricated conditions is investigated. In this regards, a flat strip drawing test was conducted to determine the friction coefficients depending on the tool surface properties resulting from various machining processes. Furthermore, a surface characterization before and after the experiments was performed to gain knowledge about the wear mechanisms. The tests series with dry strips lead to a higher friction level. Furthermore, the results show that the friction can be reduced when the grinding marks are orientated transversal to the drawing direction. A further friction reduction is achieved when applying polished tools.

Keywords

Sheet metal forming Tribology Dry forming 

Nomenclature

m

Amount of lubrication

pN

Normal pressure

vrel

Relative velocity

n

Number of repetition

FF

Friction force

FN

Normal force

FFU

Upper friction force

FFL

Lower friction force

μ

Friction coefficient

Rz

Averaged roughness height

λc

Cut off length

λS

Short-wave profile filter

lr

Sampling length

ln

Measuring length

References

  1. 1.
    Makinouchi, A. and Kawka, M., “Prediction of Geometrical Defects in Sheet Metal Forming Processes by Semi-Implicit FEM,” Studies in Applied Mechanics, Vol. 43, pp. 265–281, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kirkhorn, L., Frogner, K., Andersson, M., and Ståhl, J.-E., “Improved Tribotesting for Sheet Metal Forming,” Procedia CIRP, Vol. 3, pp. 507–512, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bay, N., Azushima, A., Groche, P., Ishibashi, I., Merklein, M., et al., “Environmentally Benign Tribo-Systems for Metal Forming,” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 59, No. 2, pp. 760–780, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vollertsen, F. and Schmidt, F., “Dry Metal Forming: Definition, Chances and Challenges,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.-Green Tech., Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 59–62, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kirkhorn, L., Bushlya, V., Andersson, M., and Ståhl, J.-E., “The Influence of Tool Steel Microstructure on Friction in Sheet Metal Forming,” Wear, Vol. 302, No. 1–2, pp. 1268–1278, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Meiler, M. and Jaschke, H., “Lubrication of Aluminium Sheet Metal within the Automotive Industry,” Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 6–8, pp. 551–558, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Birkert, A., Haage, S., and Straub, M., “Umformtechnische Herstellung Komplexer Karosserieteile: Auslegung von Ziehanlagen,” Springer-Verlag, pp. 179–180 and 207–209, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Severo, V., Vilhena, L., Silva, P., Dias, J., Becker, D., et al., “Tribological Behaviour of W-Ti-N Coatings in Semi-Industrial Strip-Drawing Tests,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 209, No. 10, pp. 4662–4667, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Batalha, G. and Stipkovic, F. M., “Quantitative Characterization of the Surface Topography of Cold Rolled Sheets-New Approaches and Possibilities,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 113, No. 1, pp. 732–738, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bowden, F. P., Tabor, D., and Freitag, E. H., “Reibung und Schmierung Fester Körper,” Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 13–145, 1959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Leu, D.-K., “A Simple Dry Friction Model for Metal Forming Process,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 209, No. 5, pp. 2361–2368, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hol, J., Alfaro, M. C., De Rooij, M., and Meinders, T., “Advanced Friction Modeling for Sheet Metal Forming,” Wear, Vol. 286–287, pp. 66–78, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Precision Engineering 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marion Merklein
    • 1
  • Kolja Andreas
    • 1
  • Jennifer Steiner
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Manufacturing TechnologyFriedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany

Personalised recommendations