Skip to main content

Nanoscale patterning and welding by solvent-free dry particle spray and focused ion beam


Nano particle deposition system (NPDS) is one of dry particle spray methods such as cold spray and aerosol deposition. It can be used to build structures from metals, ceramics, and nanomaterials without any solvents at room temperature and under low vacuum conditions, reducing energy consumption. Recent advances in dry particle spray techniques, including NPDS, have demonstrated their use with advanced nanomaterials such as carbon nanotube. However, to date, this process has not been successfully scaled down to 100-nm scales. Here, we demonstrate the use of NPDS as dry particle spray method in the nanoscale regime with the help of a focused ion beam for nanoscale manufacturing. Nanoscale patterning and welding were achieved using a nano particle deposition system with miniaturized feature sizes that were smaller than 100 nm in scale.


  1. 1.

    Lipomi, D. J., Wdiss, E. A., and Whitesides, G. M., “Green Nanofabrication: Unconventional Approaches for the Conservative Use of Energy,” in: Nanotechnology for the Energy Challenge, Martínez, G., (Ed.), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, pp. 229–279, 2010.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Duflou, J. R., Sutherland, J. W., Dornfeld, D., Herrmann, C., Jeswiet, J., et al., “Towards Energy and Resource Efficient Manufacturing: A Processes and Systems Approach,” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 61, No. 2, pp. 587–609, 2012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Abele, E., Anderl, R., and Birkhofer, H., “Environmentally-friendly Product Development,” Springer, 2005.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Chun, D. M., Choi, J. O., Lee, C. S., Kanno, I., Kotera, H., et al., “Nano-particle Deposition System (NPDS): Low Energy Solventfree Dry Spray Process for Direct Patterning of Metals and Ceramics at Room Temperature,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 13, No. 7, pp. 1107–1112, 2012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Chun, D. M., Kim, M. H., Lee, J. C., and Ahn, S. H., “Nano Particle Deposition System (NPDS) for Ceramic and Metal Coating at Room Temperature and Low Vacuum Condition,” Proc. of the ICSMA International Conference on Smart Manufacturing Application, pp. 383–386, 2008.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Wang, Q., Spencer, K., Birbilis, N., and Zhang, M. X., “The Influence of Ceramic Particles on Bond Strength of Cold Spray Composite Coatings on AZ91 Alloy Substrate,” Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 205, No. 1, pp. 50–56, 2010.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Chun, D. M., Kim, C. S., Choi, J. O., Lee, G. Y., Lee, C. S., et al., “Multilayer Deposition of Ceramic and Metal at Room Temperature using Nanoparticle Deposition System (NPDS) and Planarization Process,” International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 72, No. 1–4, pp. 41–46, 2014.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Lupoi, R. and O’Neill, W., “Deposition of Metallic Coatings on Polymer Surfaces using Cold Spray,” Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 205, No. 7, pp. 2167–2173, 2010.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Ghelichi, R., MacDonald, D., Bagherifard, S., Jahed, H., Guagliano, M., et al., “Microstructure and Fatigue Behavior of Cold Spray Coated AL5052,” Acta Materialia, Vol. 60, No. 19, pp. 6555–6561, 2012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Piechowiak, M. A., Henon, J., Durand-Panteix, O., Etchegoyen, G., Coudert, V., et al., “Growth of Dense Ti3SiC2 MAX Phase Films Elaborated at Room Temperature by Aerosol Deposition Method,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Vol. 34, No. 5, pp. 1063–1072, 2014.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Akedo, J., “Room Temperature Impact Consolidation (RTIC) of Fine Ceramic Powder by Aerosol Deposition Method and Applications to Microdevices,” Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 181–198, 2008.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Kim, C. W., Choi, J. H., Kim, H. J., Lee, D. W., Hyun, C. Y., et al., “Effects of Interlayer Roughness on Deposition Rate and Morphology of Aerosol-deposited Al2O3 Thick Films,” Ceramics International, Vol. 38, No.7, pp. 5621–5627, 2012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Kim, M. S., Chun, D. M., Choi, J. O., Lee, J. C., Kim, K. S., et al., “Room Temperature Deposition of TiO2 using Nano Particle Deposition System (NPDS): Application to Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC),” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 12, No.4, pp. 749–752, 2011.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Ahn, S. H., Chun, D. M., and Kim, C. S., “Nanoscale Hybrid Manufacturing Process by Nano Particle Deposition System (NPDS) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB),” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 60, No. 1, pp. 583–586, 2011.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Chun, D. M. and Ahn, S. H., “Deposition Mechanism of Dry Sprayed Ceramic Particles at Room Temperature using a Nanoparticle Deposition System,” Acta Materialia, Vol. 59, No. 7, pp. 2693–2703, 2011.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Bakshi, S. R., Singh, V., Balani, K., McCartney, D. G., Seal, S., et al., “Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Aluminum Composite Coating via Cold Spraying,” Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 202, No. 21, pp. 5162–5169, 2008.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Inada, R., Shibukawa, K., Masada, C., Nakanishi, Y., and Sakurai, Y., “Characterization of As-deposited Li4Ti5O12 Thin Film Electrode Prepared by Aerosol Deposition Method,” Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 253, pp.{181–186}, 2014.

  18. 18.

    Klinkow, S. V., Kosarev, V. F., and Rein, M., “Cold Spray Deposition: Significance of Particle Impact Phenomena,” Aerospace and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 7, pp.{582–591}, 2005.

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Ahn, S. H., Choi, J. O., Kim, C. S., Lee, G. Y., Lee, H. T., et al, “Laser-assisted Nano Particle Deposition System and Its Application for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Fabrication,” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 61, No. 1, pp. 575–578, 2012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Kim, C. S., Ahn, S. H., and Jang, D. Y., “Review: Developments in Micro/Nanoscale Fabrication by Focused Ion Beams,” Vacuum, Vol. 86, No. 8, pp.{1014–1035}, 2012.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Chung-Soo Kim.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Choi, JO., Kim, CS. Nanoscale patterning and welding by solvent-free dry particle spray and focused ion beam. Int. J. of Precis. Eng. and Manuf.-Green Tech. 1, 257–260 (2014).

Download citation


  • Solvent-free dry particle spray
  • Nano particle deposition system
  • Nanoscale patterning
  • Nanoscale welding