Harnessing energy from alternative energy source has been recorded since early history. Renewable energy is abundantly found anywhere, free of cost and has non-polluting characteristics. However, these energy sources are based on the weather condition and possess inherited intermittent nature, which hinders stable power supply. Combining multiple renewable energy resources can be a possible solution to overcome defects, which not only provides reliable power but also leads to reduction in required storage capacity. Although an oversized hybrid system satisfies the load demand, it can be unnecessarily expensive. An undersized hybrid system is economical, but may not be able to meet the load demand. The optimal sizing of the renewable energy power system depends on the mathematical model of system components. This paper summarizes the mathematical modeling of various renewable energy system particularly PV, wind, hydro and storage devices. Because of the nonlinear power characteristics, wind and PV system require special techniques to extract maximum power. Hybrid system has complex control system due to integration of two (or more) different power sources. The complexity of system increases with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques employed in their subsystems. This paper also summarizes mathematical modeling of various MPPT techniques for hybrid renewable energy systems.
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Bhandari, B., Poudel, S.R., Lee, KT. et al. Mathematical modeling of hybrid renewable energy system: A review on small hydro-solar-wind power generation. Int. J. of Precis. Eng. and Manuf.-Green Tech. 1, 157–173 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40684-014-0021-4