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Virtual Self-learning Modules Integrating Pharmacology Concepts into a Geriatric Elective


Given barriers to vertical integration during clinical rotations, many struggle with employing effective virtual strategies to revisit foundational sciences during clerkship. To address this, we developed virtual geriatric pharmacology self-learning modules (SLMs) for a fourth-year geriatric elective using cases, interactive exercises, resources, feedback, and quizzes. To evaluate effectiveness, learners were administered a pre- and post-elective quiz with survey. Learners improved performance after using SLMs, valued pharmacology clerkship integration and reinforcement, and agreed SLMs improved understanding, confidence, and attitudes. Thus, SLMs were an effective virtual method for integrating pharmacology that could be modified to teach other foundational sciences during clerkships.

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The authors thank Melisa Cowan from the Educational Technology office for her help in publishing and distributing the interactive tools.


This study was funded by a UCF COM medical educational innovations grant.

Author information




Laurel Gorman wrote the manuscript first draft, but all authors contributed to the study. All read, contributed feedback, and approved the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Laurel Gorman.

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Ethical Approval

The study was approved by the UCF Institutional Review Board (IRB) as a non-human retrospective analysis quality control study.

Informed Consent

N/A as this was a de-identified retrospective analysis of course data.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Gorman, L., Berry, A. & Dangiolo, M. Virtual Self-learning Modules Integrating Pharmacology Concepts into a Geriatric Elective. Med.Sci.Educ. (2021).

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  • E-learning
  • Blended learning
  • Pharmacology education
  • Geriatrics
  • Vertical integration
  • Basic science-clerkship integration