Skip to main content

Virtual Self-learning Modules Integrating Pharmacology Concepts into a Geriatric Elective

Abstract

Given barriers to vertical integration during clinical rotations, many struggle with employing effective virtual strategies to revisit foundational sciences during clerkship. To address this, we developed virtual geriatric pharmacology self-learning modules (SLMs) for a fourth-year geriatric elective using cases, interactive exercises, resources, feedback, and quizzes. To evaluate effectiveness, learners were administered a pre- and post-elective quiz with survey. Learners improved performance after using SLMs, valued pharmacology clerkship integration and reinforcement, and agreed SLMs improved understanding, confidence, and attitudes. Thus, SLMs were an effective virtual method for integrating pharmacology that could be modified to teach other foundational sciences during clerkships.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. 1.

    De Bruin AB, Schmidt HG, Rikers, Remy MJ. The role of basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge in diagnostic reasoning: a structural equation modeling approach. Acad Med. 2005;80(8):765–73. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200508000-00014.

  2. 2.

    Spencer AL, Brosenitsch T, Levine AS, Kanter SL. Back to the basic sciences: an innovative approach to teaching senior medical students how best to integrate basic science and clinical medicine. Acad Med. 2008;3:662–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Bandiera G, Kuper A, Mylopoulos M, Whitehead C, Ruetalo M, Kulasegaram K, Woods NN. Back from basics: integration of science and practice in medical education. Med Educ. 2018;52(1):78–85. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13386.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Karpicke JD, Roediger HL. The critical importance of retrieval for learning. Science. 2008;319(5865):966–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Wilkins KM, Moore D, Rohrbaugh RM, Briscoe GW. Integration of basic and clinical science in the psychiatry clerkship. Acad Psychiatry. 2017;41:369–72. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40596-016-0640-x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Gwee CE. Teaching of medical pharmacology: The need to nurture the early development of desired attitudes for safe and rational drug prescribing. Med Teach. 2009;31(9):847–54. https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590903168119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Aronson JK. A prescription for safe prescribing. B J Clin Pharmacol. 2006;61(5):487–91. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2006.02649.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Baum S, Harder S. Appropriate dosing in patients with impaired renal function on medical wards before and after an educational intervention. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2010;48:29–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Ross S, Loke YK. Do educational interventions improve prescribing by medical students and junior doctors? A systematic review. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;67:662–70.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Smith A, Tasioulas T, Cockayne N, Misan G, Walker G, Quick G. Construction and evaluation of a web-based interactive prescribing curriculum for senior medical students. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2006;62:653–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Leipzig RM, Granville L, Simpson D, Anderson MB, Sauvigne K, Soriano RP. Keeping granny safe on July 1: a consensus on minimum geriatrics competencies for graduating medical students. Acad Med. 2009;84(5):604–10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Anderson MB. A thematic summary of the geriatrics curricula at 40 US medical schools. Acad Med. 2004;79(7):S213–22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Keller I, Makipaa A, Kalenscher T, Kalache A. Global survey on geriatrics in the medical curriculum. World Health Organization Online. 2002. https://www.who.int/ageing/projects/en/alc_global_survey_tegeme.pdf.

  14. 14.

    Keijsers CJPW, Van Hensbergen L, Jacobs L, Brouwers JRBJ, De Wildt DJ, Cate OT, Jansen PAF. Geriatric pharmacology and pharmacotherapy education for health professionals and students: a systematic review. British J Clin Pharmacol. 2012;74(5):762–73. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04268.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Dominguez I, Zumwalt AC. Integrating the basic sciences in medical curricula: focus on the basic scientists. Adv Physiol Educ. 2020;44(2):119–23. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00172.2019.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Chen BY, Kern DE, Kearns RM, Thomas PA, Hughes MT, Tackett S. From modules to MOOCs: application of the six-step approach to online curriculum development for medical education. Acad Med. 2019;94(5):678–85. https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000002580.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Khalil M, Nelson L, Kibble J. The use of self-learning modules to facilitate learning of basic science concepts in an integrated medical curriculum. Anat Sci Educ. 2010;3(5):219–26. https://doi.org/10.1002/ase.177.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria® 2019 Update Expert Panel. American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers Criteria® for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2019;67(4):674–94.

  19. 19.

    O’Mahony D, Gallagher P, Ryan C, Byrne S, Hamilton H, Barry P, O’Connor M, Kennedy J. STOPP & START criteria: a new approach to detecting potentially inappropriate prescribing in old age. Eur Geriat Med. 2010;1(1):45–51.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Duque G, Demontiero, O, Whereat S, Gunawardene P, Leung O, Webster P, Sardinha L. Boersma D, Sharma A. Evaluation of a blended learning model in geriatric medicine: a successful learning experience for medical students. Australas J Aging. 2012;32(20):103–9.

  21. 21.

    Berman N, Fall LH, Smith S, Levine DA, Maloney CG, Potts M, Siegel B, Foster-Johnson L. Integration strategies for using virtual patients in clinical clerkships. Acad Med. 2009;84(7):942–9. https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3181a8c668.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Naritoku DK, Faingold CL. Development of a therapeutics curriculum to enhance knowledge of fourth-year medical students about clinical uses and adverse effects of drugs. Teach Learn Med. 2009;21:148–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Daunt L, Umeonusulu P, Gladman, J, Blundell A, Conroy S, Gordon A. Undergraduate teaching in geriatric medicine using computer-aided learning improves student performance in examinations. Age Ageing. 2013;42(4):541–4. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/aft061.

  24. 24.

    Ruiz JG, Mintzer MJ, Leipzig RM. The impact of E-learning in medical education. Acad Med. 2006;81(3):207–12. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200603000-00002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Melisa Cowan from the Educational Technology office for her help in publishing and distributing the interactive tools.

Funding

This study was funded by a UCF COM medical educational innovations grant.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Laurel Gorman wrote the manuscript first draft, but all authors contributed to the study. All read, contributed feedback, and approved the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Laurel Gorman.

Ethics declarations

Ethical Approval

The study was approved by the UCF Institutional Review Board (IRB) as a non-human retrospective analysis quality control study.

Informed Consent

N/A as this was a de-identified retrospective analysis of course data.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gorman, L., Berry, A. & Dangiolo, M. Virtual Self-learning Modules Integrating Pharmacology Concepts into a Geriatric Elective. Med.Sci.Educ. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-021-01438-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • E-learning
  • Blended learning
  • Pharmacology education
  • Geriatrics
  • Vertical integration
  • Basic science-clerkship integration