Skip to main content

Temporal sociomedical approaches to intersex* bodies

A Correction to this article was published on 22 July 2022

This article has been updated

Abstract

The history of the field of intersex bodies/bodies with variations of sex development (VSD) reflects the ongoing tension between sociomedical attempts to control uncertainty and reduce the duration of corporeal uncertainty by means of early diagnosis and treatment, and the embodied subjects who resist or challenge these attempts, which ultimately increase uncertainty. Based on various qualitative studies in the field of intersex, this article describes three temporal sociomedical approaches that have evolved over the last decade and aims to address the uncertainty surrounding intersex/VSD bodies. These approaches are (1) the corrective-concealing approach, which includes early surgeries and hormone therapies intended to “correct” intersex conditions and the deliberate concealment of the ambiguity and uncertainty associated with intersex conditions; (2) the preventive approach, which involves early genetic diagnostic methods aimed at regulating or preventing the recurrence of hereditary conditions under the umbrella of VSD; and (3) the wait-and-see approach, which perceives intersex bodies as natural variations and encourages parents to take time, wait, and give their children the right to bodily autonomy. A comparison of these approaches from biopolitical, phenomenological, and pragmatic perspectives reveals that time is an essential social agent in addressing and controlling uncertainty, a gatekeeper of social norms and social and physical orders, and, on the other hand, a sociopolitical agent that enables creative social change.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Change history

Notes

  1. Intersex is also known as “disorder of sex development” (DSD), “difference of sex development” (DSD), and “hermaphroditism.” The multiplicity of these terms reflects the ongoing struggle to classify these bodies. I use the terms ‘intersex’ and ‘variations of sex development’ (VSD) to highlight how these bodies challenge the established gender binary. There has been much misunderstanding and debate over terminology. Intersex as a biological term was coined in 1917 by renowned biologist Richard Goldschmidt. In the 1990s, intersex became a physical-political category, an umbrella term for many conditions that challenge the binary, heteronormative concept of sex and gender.

  2. Ambiguous genitalia is a medical umbrella term for external genitalia that appear different from typical female/male genitalia.

  3. All the participants names are pseudo-names.

  4. There are many physical characteristics under the umbrella of VSD and the medical intervention to which I refer to relates to conditions in which the external genitalia are different from “normative” genitals, such as a large clitoris, a small penis, a closed vagina, the absence of testes, and so on, as well as to conditions in which the internal sex organs are partially developed or do not develop at all. In these cases, the medical intervention includes the removal of the gonads and other internal organs that did not develop normally, as well as the administration of hormone replacement therapy in adolescence.

  5. Some conditions on the intersex spectrum are characterized by atypical genitalia. These include CCAH, hypospadias, partial androgen insensitivity, 5-alpha reductase deficiency, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, cryptorchidism, and others.

  6. For example, in Germany, intersex activism led to the passing of unique and historical laws, including the gender identity law, which enables people with intersex/VSD bodies to define their gender identities (Gesetzzur Änderung der in das Geburtenregistereinzutragenden Angaben, 2018) and a new law (passed in March 2021) that regulates and prevents medical intervention to normalize intersex babies’ bodies according to the gender binary. In Malta and Portugal, there are already laws that protect intersex children’s bodily autonomy. An example of a succesful lawsuit in this realm is that of the Crawfords against the Medical University of South Carolina for performing genital surgery that was detrimental to their child’s physical and emotional well-being.

  7. There are different forms of CAH. The severe form is the classical or salt wasting form, which includes atypical genitalia (the internal sex organs are typically female), increased growth, and early sexual development, but the most important issue is the health risk posed by this condition. The salt wasting, if not treated, causes dizziness, dehydration, and loss of consciousness, and may even result in death. The simple and non-classical forms pose fewer health risks, but are also characterized by accelerated growth and sexual development.

References

  • Adam, B. (2005). Timescapes of modernity: The environment and invisible hazards. Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Adam, B. (2013). Timewatch: The social analysis of time. Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed, S. F., Bashamboo, A., Lucas-Herald, A., & McElreavey, K. (2013). Understanding the genetic aetiology in patients with XY DSD. British Medical Bulletin, 106(1), 67–89. https://doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldt008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Allyse, M., Minear, M. A., Berson, E., Sridhar, S., Rote, M., Hung, A., & Chandrasekharan, S. (2015). Non-invasive prenatal testing: A review of international implementation and challenges. International Journal of Women’s Health, 7, 113. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S67124

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Altarescu, G., Barenholz, O., Renbaum, P., Beeri, R., Levy-Lahad, E., Margalioth, E. J., Brooks, B., Varshaver, I., & Eldar-Geva, T. (2011). Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)–Prevention of the birth of children affected with endocrine diseases. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, 24(7–8), 543–548. https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem.2011.262

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aneshensel, C. S., & Mitchell, U. A. (2014). The stress process: Its origins, evolution, and future. In Sociology of mental health (pp. 53–74). Springer.

  • Audi, L., Ahmed, S. F., Krone, N., Cools, M., McElreavey, K., Holterhus, P. M., Greenfield, A., Bashamboo, A., Hiort, O., Wudy, S. A., McGowan, R., The EU Cost Action. (2018). Genetics in endocrinology: Approaches to molecular genetic diagnosis in the management of differences/disorders of sex development (DSD): Position paper of EU COST Action BM 1303 ‘DSDnet.’ European Journal of Endocrinology, 179(4), R197–R206. https://doi.org/10.1530/EJE-18-0256

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baetens, D., Verdin, H., De Baere, E., & Cools, M. (2019). Update on the genetics of differences of sex development (DSD). Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 33(3), 101271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beem.2019.04.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barseghyan, H., Délot, E. C., & Vilain, E. (2018). New technologies to uncover the molecular basis of disorders of sex development. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 468, 60–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2018.04.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bauer, M., Truffer, D., & Crocetti, D. (2020). Intersex human rights. The International Journal of Human Rights, 24(6), 724–749. https://doi.org/10.1080/13642987.2019.1671354

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bennecke, E., Bernstein, S., Lee, P., van de Grift, T. C., Nordenskjöld, A., Rapp, M., et al. (2021). Early genital surgery in disorders/differences of sex development: Patients’ perspectives. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 50(3), 913–923.

    Google Scholar 

  • Berger Peter, L., & Luckmann, T. (1966). The social construction of reality. Doubleday & Company.

    Google Scholar 

  • Binet, A., Lardy, H., Geslin, D., Francois-Fiquet, C., & Poli-Merol, M. L. (2016). Should we question early feminizing genitoplasty for patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and XX karyotype? Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 51(3), 465–468.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bordo, S. (2004). Unbearable weight: Feminism, Western culture, and the body. University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Buijs, R. M., Eden, C. V., Goncharuk, V. D., & Kalsbeek, A. (2003). Circadian and seasonal rhythms. The biological clock tunes the organs of the body: Timing by hormones and the autonomic nervous system. Journal of Endocrinology, 177(1), 17–26.

    Google Scholar 

  • Buonocore, F., Clifford-Mobley, O., King, T. F., Striglioni, N., Man, E., Suntharalingham, J. P., del Valle, I., Lin, L., Lagos, C. F., Rumsby, G., Conway, G. S., & Achermann, J. C. (2019). Next-generation sequencing reveals novel genetic variants (SRY, DMRT1, NR5A1, DHH, DHX37) in adults with 46, XY DSD. Journal of the Endocrine Society, 3(12), 2341–2360. https://doi.org/10.1210/js.2019-00306

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Butler, J. (1992). Gender trouble. Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Butler, J. (1993). Bodies that matter: On the discursive limits of sex. Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Butler, J. (2004). Undoing gender. Psychology Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chase, C. (1998). Hermaphrodites with attitude: Mapping the emergence of intersex political activism. GLQ, 4(2), 189–211.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chase, C. (2003). What is the agenda of the intersex patient advocacy movement? The Endocrinologist, 13(3), 240–242.

    Google Scholar 

  • Christian, S. M., Koehn, D., Pillay, R., MacDougall, A., & Wilson, R. D. (2000). Parental decisions following prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidy: A trend over time. Prenatal Diagnosis, 20(1), 37–40.

    Google Scholar 

  • Colapinto, J. (2000). As nature made him: The boy who was raised as a girl. Harper Collins Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cox, K., Bryce, J., Jiang, J., Rodie, M., Sinnott, R., Alkhawari, M., Arlt, W., Audi, L., Balsamo, A., Bertelloni, S., Cools, M., Darendeliler, F., Drop, S., Ellaithi, M., Guran, T., Hiort, O., Holterhus, P. M., Hughes, I., Krone, N., … Ahmed, S. F. (2014). Novel associations in disorders of sex development: Findings from the I-DSD Registry. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 99(2), E348–E355. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2013-2918

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Croft, B., Ayers, K., Sinclair, A., & Ohnesorg, T. (2016). Review disorders of sex development: The evolving role of genomics in diagnosis and gene discovery. Birth Defects Research Part c: Embryo Today: Reviews, 108(4), 337–350. https://doi.org/10.1002/bdrc.21148

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Crossley, N. (1996). Body-subject/body-power: Agency, inscription and control in Foucault and Merleau-Ponty. Body & Society, 2(2), 99–116.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davis, K. (2009). A dubious equality: Men, women and cosmetic surgery. Body & Society, 8(1), 49–65.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davis, G. (2015). Contesting intersex: The dubious diagnosis. New York University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davis, L. J. (2016). The disability studies reader. Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Diamond, M., & Garland, J. (2014). Evidence regarding cosmetic and medically unnecessary surgery on infants. Journal of Pediatric Urology, 10(1), 2–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2013.10.021

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Domurat-Dreger, A. (1998). Ambiguous sex or ambivalent medicine? The Hastings Center Report, 28(3), 24–35.

    Google Scholar 

  • Domurat-Dreger, A. (Ed.). (1999). Intersex in the age of ethics. University Publishing Group.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dumas, A., & Turner, B. S. (2007). The life-extension project: A sociological critique. Health Sociology Review, 16(1), 5–17.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eder, S. (2010). The volatility of sex: Intersexuality, gender and clinical practice in the 1950s. Gender & History, 22(3), 692–707. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0424.2010.01615.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eid, W., & Biason-Lauber, A. (2016). Why boys will be boys and girls will be girls: Human sex development and its defects. Birth Defects Research Part c: Embryo Today: Reviews, 108(4), 365–379. https://doi.org/10.1002/bdrc.21143

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fagerholm, R., Santtila, P., Miettinen, P. J., Mattila, A., Rintala, R., & Taskinen, S. (2011). Sexual function and attitudes toward surgery after feminizing genitoplasty. The Journal of Urology, 185(5), 1900–1904.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fausto-Sterling, A. (2000). Sexing the body: Gender politics and the construction of sexuality. Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fausto-Sterling, A. (2012). Sex/gender: Biology in a social world. Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Feder, E. K. (2014). Making sense of intersex: Changing ethical perspectives in bio-medicine. Indiana University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Feinberg, J. (1980). The child’s right to an open future. In W. Aiken & H. LaFollette (Eds.), Whose child? Children’s rights, parental authority, and state power (pp. 123–153). Rowman and Littlefield.

    Google Scholar 

  • Foucault, M. (1980). Herculine Barbin. Pantheon Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Foucault, M. (1990). The history of sexuality: An introduction. Vintage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Foucault, M. (2006). Madness and civilization: A history of insanity in the Age of Reason. Routledge. (Original work published 1961).

    Google Scholar 

  • Freeman, E. (2010). Time binds: Queer temporalities, queer histories. Duke University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gardner, M., & Sandberg, D. E. (2018). Navigating surgical decision making in disorders of sex development (DSD). Frontiers in Pediatrics, 6, 339. https://doi.org/10.3389/fped.2018.00339

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grabham, E. (2012). Bodily integrity and the surgical management of intersex. Body & Society, 18(2), 1–26.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grinspon, R. P., & Rey, R. A. (2019). Disorders of sex development. In C. S. Kovacs & C. L. Deal (Eds.), Maternal-fetal and neonatal endocrinology (pp. 841–867). Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gupta, K., & Freeman, S. M. (2013). Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for intersex conditions: Beyond parental decision making. The American Journal of Bioethics, 13(10), 49–51. https://doi.org/10.1080/15265161.2013.828124

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gurvitch, G. (1990). The problem of time. In J. Hassard (Ed.), The sociology of time (pp. 35–44). Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hamamy, H. A., & Dahoun, S. (2004). Parental decisions following the prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome abnormalities. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 116(1), 58–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2003.12.029

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Haraway, D. (1991). Simians, cyborgs, and women: The reinvention of nature. Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harper, J. C., Coonen, E., De Rycke, M., Harton, G., Moutou, C., Pehlivan, T., Traeger-Synodinos, J., Van Rij, M. C., & Goossens, V. (2010). ESHRE PGD Consortium data collection X: Cycles from January to December 2007 with pregnancy follow-up to October 2008. Human Reproduction, 25(11), 2685–2707. https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deq228

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hashiloni-Dolev, Y. (2018). Policy regarding reproductive technologies. In H. Boas, Y. Hashiloni-Dolev, S. Lavi, D. Filc, & N. Davidovitch (Eds.), Bioethics and biopolitics in Israel (pp. 119–138). Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hashiloni-Dolev, Y., Nov-Klaiman, T., & Raz, A. E. (2019). Pandora’s pregnancy: NIPT, CMA, and genome sequencing—A new era for prenatal genetic testing. Prenatal Diagnosis, 39(10), 859–865. https://doi.org/10.1002/pd.5495

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Holmes, M. (1994). Re-membering a queer body. UnderCurrents: Journal of Critical Environmental Studies, 6, 11–13.

    Google Scholar 

  • Holmes, M. (2008). Intersex: A perilous difference. Susquehanna University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hughes, L. A., McKay-Bounford, K., Webb, E. A., Dasani, P., Clokie, S., Chandran, H., McCarthy, L., Mohamed, Z., Kirk, J. M. W., Krone, N. P., Allen, S., & Cole, T. R. P. (2019). Next generation sequencing (NGS) to improve the diagnosis and management of patients with disorders of sex development (DSD). Endocrine Connections, 8(2), 100–110. https://doi.org/10.1530/EC-18-0376

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Israeli-Nevo, A. (2017). Taking (my) time: Temporality in transition, queer delays and being (in the) present. Somatechnics, 7(1), 34–49. https://doi.org/10.3366/soma.2017.0204

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jeon, K. C., Chen, L. S., & Goodson, P. (2012). Decision to abort after a prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome abnormality: A systematic review of the literature. Genetics in Medicine, 14(1), 27–38.

    Google Scholar 

  • Karkazis, K. (2008). Fixing sex: Intersex, medical authority and lived experience. Duke University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kessler, S. J. (1998). Lessons from the intersexed. Rutgers University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kim, J. H., Kang, E., Heo, S. H., Kim, G. H., Jang, J. H., Cho, E. H., Lee, B. H., Yoo, H. W., & Choi, J. H. (2017). Diagnostic yield of targeted gene panel sequencing to identify the genetic etiology of disorders of sex development. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 444, 19–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2017.01.037

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Koopman, P., Münsterberg, A., Capel, B., Vivian, N., & Lovell-Badge, R. (1990). Expression of a candidate sex-determining gene during mouse testis differentiation. Nature, 348(6300), 450–452.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kramer, M. W. (1999). Motivation to reduce uncertainty: A reconceptualization of uncertainty reduction theory. Management Communication Quarterly, 13(2), 305–316.

    Google Scholar 

  • Laqueur, T. (1990). Making sex: Body and gender from Greeks to Freud. Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee, P. A., Nordenström, A., Houk, C. P., Ahmed, S. F., Auchus, R., Baratz, A., Dalke, K. B., Liao, M.-L., Lin-Su, K., Looijenga, L. H. J., III., Mazur, T., Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L., Mouriquand, P., Quigley, C. A., Sandberg, D. E., Vilain, E., Witchel, S., Global DSD Update Consortium. (2016). Global disorders of sex development update since 2006: Perceptions, approach and care. Hormone Research in Paediatrics, 85(3), 158–180. https://doi.org/10.1159/000442975

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lohman, S., & Lohman, E. (2018). Raising Rosie: Our story of parenting an intersex child. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mak, G. (2012). Doubting sex: Inscriptions, bodies and selves in nineteenth-century hermaphrodite case histories. Manchester University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meoded Danon, L. (2015). The body/secret dynamic: Life experiences of intersexed people in Israel. Sage Open, 11, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2158244015580370

  • Meoded Danon, L. (2018a). Time matters for intersex bodies: Between socio-medical time and somatic time. Social Science Medicine, 208, 89–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.05.019

  • Meoded Danon, L. (2018b). Intersex activists in Israel: Their achievements and the obstacles they face. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 15(4), 569–578. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11673-018-9877-2

  • Meoded Danon, L. (2019). Comparing contemporary medical treatment practices aimed at intersex/DSD bodies in Israel and Germany. Sociology of Health Illness, 41(1), 143–164. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.12812

  • Meoded Danon, L. (2021). The parental struggle with the Israeli genital socialization process. Qualitative Health Research, https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1049732320984420

  • Meoded Danon, L., & Schweizer, K. (2020). Psychosocial approaches and discursive gaps in intersex healthcare: Findings from an Israeli-German action research study. Culture, Health Sexuality, 23(4), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691058.2020.1810779

  • Meoded Danon, L., & Krämer, A. (2017). Between concealing and revealing intersexed bodies: Parental strategies. Qualitative Health Research, 27(10), 1562–1574. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1049732317697100.

  • Meoded Danon, L., & Yanay, N. (2016). Intersexuality: On secret bodies and secrecy. Studies in Gender and Sexuality, 17(1), 57–72. https://doi.org/10.1080/15240657.2016.1135684.

  • Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self and society (Vol. 111). University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Merleau-Ponty, M. (1968). The visible and the invisible. Northwestern University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Money, J., & Erhardt, A. (1972). Man and woman, boy and girl: The differentiation and dimorphism of gender identity from conception to maturity. Johns Hopkins Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Money, J., Hampson, J. G., & Hampson, J. L. (1957). Imprinting and the establishment of gender role. AMA Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry, 77(3), 333–336.

    Google Scholar 

  • Monro, S., Carpenter, M., Crocetti, D., Davis, G., Garland, F., Griffiths, D., Hegarty, P., Travis, M., Grinspan, M. C., & Aggleton, P. (2021). Intersex: Cultural and social perspectives. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 23(4), 431–440. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691058.2021.1899529

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morland, I. (2001). Is intersexuality real? Textual Practice, 15(3), 527–554.

    Google Scholar 

  • Morland, I. (2009). What can queer theory do for intersex? GLQ, 15(2), 285–312. https://doi.org/10.1215/10642684-2008-139

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morland, I. (2012). The injured world: Intersex and the phenomenology of feeling. Differences, 23(2), 20–41. https://doi.org/10.1215/10407391-1629803

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morland, I. (2015). Gender, genitals and the meaning of being human. In L. Downing, I. Morland, & M. Sullivan (Eds.), Fuckology: Critical essays on John Money’s diagnostic concepts (pp. 69–98). University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oudshoorn, N. (1990). On the making of sex hormones: Research materials and the production of knowledge. Social Studies of Science, 20(1), 5–33.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oudshoorn, N. (1994). Beyond the natural body: An archaeology of sex hormones. Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pasterski, V., Mastroyannopoulou, K., Wright, D., Zucker, K. J., & Hughes, I. A. (2014). Predictors of posttraumatic stress in parents of children diagnosed with a disorder of sex development. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43(2), 369–375. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-013-0196-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Piaget, J. (2003). Part I: Cognitive development in children–Piaget development and learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 40, S8–S18.

    Google Scholar 

  • Preves, S. E. (2003). Intersex and identity: The contested self. Rutgers University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Raz, A. E. (2009). Community genetics and genetic alliances: Eugenics, carrier testing, and networks of risk. Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reis, E. (2009). Bodies in doubt: An American history of intersex. Johns Hopkins University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Remennick, L. (2006). The quest for the perfect baby: Why do Israeli women seek prenatal genetic testing? Sociology of Health & Illness, 28(1), 21–53. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9566.2006.00481.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rey, R. A., & Grinspon, R. P. (2011). Normal male sexual differentiation and etiology of disorders of sex development. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 25(2), 221–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beem.2010.08.013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Richardson, S. S. (2013). Sex itself: The search for male and female in the human genome. University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rimon-Zarfaty, N., & Raz, A. (2010). Abortion committees as agents of eugenics: Medical and public views on selective abortion following mild or likely fetal pathology. In D. Birenbaum-Carmeli & Y. Carmeli (Eds.), Kin, gene, community: Reproductive technologies among Jewish Israelis (pp. 202–225). Berghahn Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roughgarden, J. (2013). Evolution’s rainbow: Diversity, gender, and sexuality in nature and people. University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sagi, M., Meiner, V., Reshef, N., Dagan, J., & Zlotogora, J. (2001). Prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidy: Possible reasons for high rates of pregnancy termination. Prenatal Diagnosis, 21(6), 461–465. https://doi.org/10.1002/pd.78

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schutz, A. (1970). Alfred Schutz on phenomenology and social relations. University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schutz, A., & Luckmann, T. (1973). The structures of the life-world (Vol. 1). Northwestern University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schweizer, K., Brunner, F., Gedrose, B., Handford, C., & Richter-Appelt, H. (2017). Coping with diverse sex development: Treatment experiences and psychosocial support during childhood and adolescence and adult well-being. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 42(5), 504–519.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shaffer, B. L., Caughey, A. B., & Norton, M. E. (2006). Variation in the decision to terminate pregnancy in the setting of fetal aneuploidy. Prenatal Diagnosis, 26(8), 667–671. https://doi.org/10.1002/pd.1462

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shilling, C. (2008). Changing bodies: Habit, crisis and creativity. Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sinclair, A. H., Berta, P., Palmer, M. S., Hawkins, J. R., Griffiths, B. L., Smith, M. J., Foster, J. W., Frischauf, A.-M., Lovell-Badge, R., & Goodfellow, P. N. (1990). A gene from the human sex-determining region encodes a protein with homology to a conserved DNA-binding motif. Nature, 346(6281), 240–244.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smithson, M. (2012). The many faces and masks of uncertainty. In G. Bammer & M. Smithson (Eds.), Uncertainty and risk (pp. 31–44). Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Štrkalj, G., & Pather, N. (2021). Beyond the sex binary: Toward the inclusive anatomical sciences education. Anatomical Sciences Education, 14(4), 513–518. https://doi.org/10.1002/ase.2002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Suissa, A. J. (2008). Addiction to cosmetic surgery: Representations and medicalization of the body. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 6(4), 619–630.

    Google Scholar 

  • Timmermans, S., & Epstein, S. (2010). A world of standards but not a standard world: Toward a sociology of standards and standardization. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 69–89. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.102629

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Turner, B. S. (2002). Regulating bodies: Essays in medical sociology. Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Turner, B. S. (2008). The body and society: Explorations in social theory. Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Viloria, H. (2017). Born both: An intersex life. Hachette Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weiss, M. (2004). The chosen body: The politics of the body in Israeli society. Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolf, N. (2013). The beauty myth: How images of beauty are used against women. Random House.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zerubavel, E. (1985). Hidden rhythms: Schedules and calendars in social life. University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Limor Meoded Danon.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

The original online version of this article was revised: The original paper was inadvertedly published with blinded citations on page 3 and page 5.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Meoded Danon, L. Temporal sociomedical approaches to intersex* bodies. HPLS 44, 28 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40656-022-00511-0

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40656-022-00511-0

Keywords

  • Intersex
  • Uncertainty
  • Temporality
  • Preventive approach
  • Corrective approach
  • Wait and see approach