Psychological Well-Being, Risk, and Resilience of Youth in Out-Of-Home Care and Former Foster Youth
- 456 Downloads
This study assesses psychological well-being, risk, and resilience of youth currently in-care and former foster youth and how preparation for independent living affects these factors. Findings suggest significant psychosocial distress for former foster youth. Youth currently in-care fared better but demonstrated high scores on measures suggesting risk and potential for future mental health challenges. For former foster youth, independent living preparation positively impacted well-being. The more preparation for independence a youth received, the lower the psychological challenges. Findings suggest the need for mental health support for transitioning youth as well as preparation for independent living as a way to improve the well-being of former foster youth.
KeywordsFoster care Mental health older youth in foster care Child welfare Risk and older youth child welfare
The study was supported by a grant from the Administration for Children & Families [HHS-2013-ACF-ACYF-CA-0636] to Elizabeth J. Greeno, Principal Investigator.
Funded through Planning Grants to Develop a Model Intervention for Youth/Young Adults with Child Welfare Involvement At-Risk of Homelessness [HHS-2013-ACF-ACYF-CA-0636]
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Disclosure of Interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
Ethical Standards and Informed Consent
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation [institutional and national] and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
- Brady, R. P. (2006). Youth Risk and Resilience Inventory: Administrator’s guide. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Life.Google Scholar
- Courtney, M. E., Dworsky, A., Cusick, G. R., Havlicek, J., Perez, A., & Keller, T. (2007). Midwest evaluation of the adult functioning of former foster youth: Outcomes at age 21. Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago.Google Scholar
- Cusick, G. R., & Courtney, M. E. (2007). Offending during late adolescent: How do youth aging out of care compare with their peers? Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago. Retrieved from http://www.chapinhall.org/sites/default/files/publications/ChapinHallDocument_0.pdf.
- Edwards, V. J., Holden, G. W., Felitti, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2003). Relationship between multiple forms of childhood maltreatment and adult mental health in community respondents: results from the adverse childhood experiences study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(8), 1453–1460.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Euser, S., Alink, L. R., Tharner, A., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2013). The prevalence of child sexual abuse in out-of-home care: a comparison between abuse in residential and in foster care. Child Maltreatment, https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559513489848.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Greeson, J. K., Briggs, E. C., Kisiel, C. L., Layne, C. M., Ake, G. S.,.. . Fairbank, J. A. (2012). Complex trauma and mental health in children and adolescents placed in foster care: findings from the national child traumatic stress network. Child Welfare, 90(6), 91–108.Google Scholar
- Human Rights Campaign (2015). LGBTQ youth in the foster care system. Retrieved from http://hrc-assets.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com//files/assets/resources/HRC-YouthFosterCare-IssueBrief-FINAL.pdf.
- Isomaa, R., Vaananen, J. M., Frojd, S., Kaltiala-Heino, R., & Marttunen, M. (2013). How low is low? Low self-esteem as an indicator of internalizing psychopathology in adolescence. Adolescent Health, 40(4), 393–399.Google Scholar
- Jackson, L. J. (2008). The comborbidity problem: A deeper look at depression and PTSD in foster care alumni. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.Google Scholar
- Masten, A. S., Gewirtz, A. H., & Sapienza, J. K. (2013). Resilience in development: The importance of early childhood. In A.S. Masten (editor) section on Resilience, in R.E. Tremblay, M.Viovin, & R. Dev. Peters (eds). Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from: http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/sites/default/files/textes-experts/en/834/resilience-in-development-the-importance-of-early-childhood.pdf.
- McMillen, J. C., Zima, B. T., Scott, L. D., Auslander, W. F., Munson, M. R., Ollie, M. T., & Spitznagel, E. L. (2005). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among older youths in the foster care system. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(1), 88–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- National Child Traumatic Stress Network. (2003). Complex trauma in children and adolescents: White paper from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network complex trauma task force. Retrieved from http://www.nctsnet.org/nctsn_assets/pdfs/edu_materials/ComplexTrauma_All.pdf.
- Nixon, R., & Jones, M. G. (2000). Improving transitions to adulthood for youth served by the foster care system: A report on the strengths and needs of exiting aftercare services. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America, Inc.Google Scholar
- Oshri, A., Carlson, M. W., Kwon, J. A., Zeichner, A., & Wickrama, K. K. (2016). Developmental growth trajectories of self-esteem in adolescence: associations with child neglect and drug use and abuse in young adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(1), 1–14.Google Scholar
- Pecora, P., Kessler, R., Williams, J., O’Brien, K., Downs, A. C., English, D., … Holmes, K. (2005). Improving family foster care: Findings from the Northwest Foster Care Alumni Study. Seattle, WA: Casey Family Programs. Retrieved from http://www.casey.org/media/AlumniStudies_NW_Report_FR.pdf.
- Pecora, P. J., Kessler, R. C., O’Brihn, K., White, C. R., Williams, J., Hiripi, E., & Herrick, M. A. (2006). Educational and employment outcomes of adults placed in foster care: results from the Northwest foster care alumni study. Child and Youth Services Review, 28(X), 1459–1481. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2006.04.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rosenberg, M. (1986). Conceiving the self. Krieger: Malabar, FL.Google Scholar
- Schofield, G., Larsson, B., & Ward, E. (2016). Risk, resilience and identity construction in the life narratives of young people leaving residential care. Child & Family Social Work, n/a-n/a. https://doi.org/10.1111/cfs.12295.
- Sullivan, C., Sommer, S., & Moff, J. (2001). Youth in the margins: A report on the unmet needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescents in foster care. New York, NY: Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund.Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children and Families Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, Children’s Bureau (2016). The AFCARS Report: Preliminary FY 2013 Estimates as of July 2014. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children and Families Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, Children’s Bureau (2012). Promoting social and emotional well-being for children and youth receiving child welfare services. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- Walker, J. S., Seibel, C. L., & Jackson, S. (2016). Increasing youths’ participation in team-based treatment planning: The Achieve My Plan enhancement for wraparound. Regional Research Institute, School of Social Work, Portland State University.Google Scholar