Skip to main content

Beliefs on Marital Violence and Self-Reported Dating Violence: A Comparative Study of Cape Verdean and Portuguese Adolescents

Abstract

In this study, we compare Portuguese and Cape Verdean youths’ upholding of traditional beliefs about intimate partner violence (IPV) and the frequency of self-reported violent behavior in dating relationships. The sample (n = 404) consisted of 183 Cape Verdean and 221 Portuguese secondary school students of both sexes (56 % female; mean age = 16). We used two questionnaires that had previously been validated in the Portuguese population. The results revealed that young Cape Verdean adolescents uphold stronger traditional beliefs than Portuguese adolescents do, but there were no differences in overall prevalence of abuse between the two samples. The relationship between traditional beliefs and self-reported violence was significant only in the Cape Verdean sample, suggesting that campaigns against IPV have not, so far, been as effective in Cape Verde as in Portugal.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Abramsky, T., Watts, C., García-Moreno, C., Devries, K., Kiss, L., Ellsberg, M., & Heise, L. (2011). What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? Findings from the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence. BMC Public Health, 11(109), 1–17. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-109.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Arriaga, X., & Foshee, V. (2004). Adolescent dating violence: do adolescents follow in their friends’, or their parents’, footsteps? Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19(2), 162–184.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Berkowitz, A. (2003). Applications of social norms theory to other health and social justice issues. In H. W. Perkins (Ed.), The social norms approach to preventing school and college age substance abuse: a handbook for educators, counselors, clinicians (pp. 259–279). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Caridade, S. (2011). Vivências violentas: Uma abordagem científica [Violent experiences. A scientific approach]. Coimbra: Almedina.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Caridade, S., Machado, C., & Vaz, F. (2007). Violência no namoro: Estudo exploratório em jovens estudantes [Dating violence: An exploratory study in young students]. Psychologica, 46, 197–214.

    Google Scholar 

  6. CEDAW. (2010). Relatório Combinado do Estado – Parte República de Cabo Verde [Combined report of State – Part Cape Verde Republic]. New York: United Nations.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Chan, K. L., Straus, M., Brownridge, D., Tiwari, A., & Leung, W. C. (2010). Prevalence of dating partner violence and suicidal ideation among male and female university students worldwide. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 53(6), 529–537. doi:10.1016/j.jmwh.2008.04.016.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Coker, A., McKeown, R., Sanderson, M., Davis, K., Valois, R., & Huebner, E. S. (2000). Severe dating violence and quality of life among South Carolina high school students. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 19(4), 220–227.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Cornelius, T. L., & Resseguie, N. (2007). Primary and secondary prevention programs for dating violence: a review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 12, 364–375.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Fincham, F. F., Cui, M., Braithwaite, S., & Pasley, K. (2008). Attitudes toward intimate partner violence in dating relationships. Psychological Assessment, 20(3), 260–269. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.20.3.260.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. FRA. (2014). Violence against women: an EU-wide survey. Austria: FRA – European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights.

    Google Scholar 

  12. García-Moreno, C., Jansen, A. F. M., Ellsberg, M., Heise, L., & Watts, C. (2005). WHO Multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence against women. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Giordano, P., Soto, D. A., Manning, W. D., & Longmore, M. A. (2010). The characteristics of romantic relationships associated with teen dating violence. Social Science Research, 39, 863–874. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2010.03.009.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  14. Hines, D. A., & Saudino, K. (2003). Gender differences in psychological, physical, and sexual aggression among college students using the revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Violence and Victims, 18, 197–217. doi:10.1891/vivi.2003.18.2.197.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. INE et al. [National Statistical Institute, Health Department of Cape Verde] & Macro International (2008). Segundo Inquérito Demográfico e de Saúde Reprodutiva, Cabo Verde [II Demographic and Reproductive Health Survey] IDSR-II, 200. Calverton: INE.

  16. Instituto Cabo-Verdiano para a Igualdade e Equidade de Género [Cape Verdean Institute for Gender Equality and Equity] (ICIEG). (2014). Relatório Cabo Verde Beijing + 20. Praia: ICIEG.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Lima, A. (2007). Searching for rainbows: race, ethnicity, gender and the socialization of Cape Verdean immigrant youth within family, school and community contexts. Dissertation Abstracts International, 68(6), 2270A.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Machado, C., Matos, M., & Moreira, A. I. (2003). Violência nas relações amorosas: Comportamentos e atitudes na população universitária. [Violence in intimate relationships: Behaviors and attitudes in college population]. Psychologica, 33, 69–83.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Machado, C., Caridade, S., & Martins, C. (2010a). Violence in juvenile dating relationships self-reported prevalence and attitudes in a Portuguese sample. Journal of Family Violence, 25, 43–52. doi:10.1007/s10896-009-9268-x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Machado, T., Macieira, I., & Carreiras, M. (2010b). Violência nas relações de namoro: Influência de crenças e área de formação [Violence in dating relationships: The influence of beliefs and formation fields]. Revista Psicologia, Educação e Cultura, XIV(2), 355–399.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Matos, M., Machado, C., & Gonçalves, M. M. (2000a). E.C.V.C. – Escala de crenças sobre violência conjugal [Scale of beliefs in marital violence]. Braga: Education and Psychology Institute, University of Minho.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Matos, M., Machado, C., & Gonçalves, M. M. (2000b). I.V.C. – Inventário de violência conjugal [Marital violence inventory]. Braga: Education and Psychology Institute, University of Minho.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Miller, S. (2005). Victims as offenders: the paradox of women’s violence in relationships. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Neves, S. (2014). De vítimas a agressoras: A (aparente) dupla posição das raparigas na violência no namoro heterossexual. [From victims to aggressors: The (apparent) double position of girls in violent heterosexual dating]. In V. Duarte & M. I. Cunha (Eds.), Violências e delinquências juvenis femininas: Género e (in)visibilidades sociais [Juvenile feminine violence and delinquency: Gender and social (in)visibilities] (pp. 63–76). Famalicão: Editora Húmus.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Neves, S., & Torres, J. (2015). Gender social relations and violence in intimacy: discourses of young Cape Verdean. Revista Portuguesa de Psiquiatria e Psicologia da Justiça, 7, 138–160. Retrieved from http://www.spppj.com/uploads/n_7.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  26. O’Leary, K. D., Slep, A., Avery-Leaf, S., & Cascardi, M. (2008). Gender differences in dating aggression among multiethnic high school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 42, 473–479. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.09.012.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Paiva, C. (2012). Dating violence: causes and effects. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Braga: University of Minho.

  28. Paiva, C., & Figueiredo, B. (2004). Abuso no relacionamento íntimo: Estudo de prevalência em jovens adultos portugueses [Abuse in intimate relationship: Prevalence in Portuguese young adults]. Psychologica, 36, 75–107.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Pinheiro, F. (2011). Violência no namoro entre jovens imigrantes cabo-verdianos em Portugal [Dating violence among young Cape Verdean immigrants in Portugal]. Unpublished master dissertation. Maia: Instituto Superior da Maia.

  30. Reyes, H. L., Foshee, V., Niolon, P. H., Reidy, D. E., & Hall, J. E. (2015). Adolescent dating violence perpetration: normative beliefs as moderators. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. doi:10.1007/s10964-015-0278-0.

    PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. Saavedra, R. (2011). Prevenir antes de remediar: Prevenção da violência nos relacionamentos íntimos juvenis. [Prevent better than cure: Prevention of violence in juvenile intimate relationships]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Braga: University of Minho.

  32. SEF - Serviço de Estrangeiros e Fronteiras. (2015). Relatório de imigração, fronteiras e asilo 2014 [Foreigners and borders agency – Report on immigration, borders and asylum 2014]. Lisboa: SEF. Retrieved from http://sefstat.sef.pt/Docs/Rifa_2014.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Smith, B. A., Thompson, S., Tomaka, J., & Buchanan, A. C. (2005). Development of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scales (IPVAS) with a predominantly Mexican American college sample. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 27, 442–454.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Straus, M. (2008). Dominance and symmetry in partner violence by male and female university students in 32 nations. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 252–275. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2007.10.004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Terry, D. J., & Hogg, M. A. (1996). Group norms and the attitude–behavior relationship: a role for group identification. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 776–793.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Terry, D. J., Hogg, M. A., & White, K. M. (1999). Group norms, social identity, and attitude–behavior relations. In D. J. Terry & M. A. Hogg (Eds.), Attitudes, behavior and social context: the role of norms and group membership (pp. 67–94). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Teten, A., Ball, B., Valle, L., Noonan, R., & Rosenbluth, B. (2009). Considerations for the definition, measurement, consequences, and prevention of dating violence victimization among adolescent girls. Journal of Women’s Health, 18(7), 923–927. doi:10.1089/jwh.2009.1515.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. UN Women (2015). Progress of the World’s Women 2015–2016: Transforming economies, realizing rights. Retrieved form http://www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/progress-of-the-worlds-women#sthash.gJcIoKSp.dpuf.

  39. Watson, J., Cascardi, M., Avery-Leaf, S., & O’Leary, K. D. (2001). High school student’s responses to dating aggression. Violence and Victims, 16, 339–348.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ana Sofia Neves.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Neves, A.S., Cameira, M., Machado, M. et al. Beliefs on Marital Violence and Self-Reported Dating Violence: A Comparative Study of Cape Verdean and Portuguese Adolescents. Journ Child Adol Trauma 11, 197–204 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40653-016-0099-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Intimate partner violence
  • Dating violence
  • Beliefs
  • Cross-cultural
  • Cape Verde
  • Portugal
  • Adolescents