Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Commercially Sexually Exploited Youth
- 510 Downloads
Commercially sexually exploited children and adolescents (“commercially exploited youth”)present numerous clinical challenges that have led some mental health providers to question whether current evidence-based treatments are adequate to address the needs of this population. This paper 1) addresses commonalities between the trauma experiences, responses and treatment challenges of commercially exploited youth and those of youth with complex trauma; 2) highlights the importance of careful assessment to guide case conceptualization and treatment planning for commercially exploited youth; and 3) describes strategies for implementing Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for complex trauma specific to these youth.
KeywordsCommercial sexual exploitation of children Trauma-Focused CBT Complex trauma PTSD Trauma Evidence-based treatment Children Adolescents
- American Psychological Association (2014). Report of the Task Force on Trafficking of Women and Girls, available at http://www.apa.org/pi/women/programs/trafficking/report.aspx.
- Bancroft, L., & Silverman, J. G. (2002). The batterer as parent. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Briere, J., & Spinazzola, J. (2005). Phenomenology and psychological assessment of complex posttraumatic states. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18, 410–412.Google Scholar
- Chatterjee, P., Chakraborty, T., Srivastava, N., & Deb, S. (2006). Short and long term problems faced by the trafficked children: a qualitative study. Social Science International, 22(1), 167–182.Google Scholar
- Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Deblinger, E. (2006). Treating trauma and traumatic grief in children and adolescents. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Cole, J., Sprang, V., Lee, R. & Cohen, J.A. (2014). The trauma of CSE of youth: a comparison of CSE victims to sexual abuse victims in a clinical sample. J Interpersonal Violence, November 6, 2014, Online First.Google Scholar
- Cook, A., Blaustein, M,. Spinazzola, J., & Van der Kolk, B. (Eds.) (2003). Complex trauma in children and adolescents. National Child Traumatic Stress Network. Available at http://www.nctsnet.org/nctsn_assets/pdfs/edu_materials/Complextrauma_All.pdf.
- Covenant House (2013). Homelessness, survival sex and human trafficking as experienced by the youth of Covenant House New York. Report available from firstname.lastname@example.org.Google Scholar
- Curtis, R., Terry, K., Dank, M., Dombrowski, K., & Khan, B. (2008). Commercial sexual exploitation of children in New York City, Volume One: The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children Population in New York City: Size, Characteristics and Need. Final Report, U.S. DOJ.Google Scholar
- Deb, S. & Sen, P. (2005). A study on psychological trauma of young trafficked women. Paper presented at the 6th Asian Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect, Singapore.Google Scholar
- Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A. P., Cohen, J. A., Runyon, M. K., & Heflin, A. H. (2015). Child sexual abuse: a primer for treating children, adolescents and their non-offfending parents. Second Edition. New York: Oxford Press.Google Scholar
- Estes, R. J. & Weiner, N. A. (2002). Commercial sexual exploitation of children in the U.S. and Mexico. Full Report of the U.S. National Study. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Center for the Study of Youth Policy, Unpublished Report.Google Scholar
- Finklea, K, Fernandes-Alcantara, A.L., & Siskin, A. (2015). Sex trafficking of children in the U.S. Overview and Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Services: Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- Ford, J. D., Nader, K., & Fletcher, K. E. (2013). Clinical assessment and diagnosis. In J. D. Ford & C. A. Courtois (Eds.), Treating complex stress disorders in children and adolescents (pp. 116–139). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Friedman, M.D. (2014). Research on DSM-5 and ICD-11. PTSD Research Quarterly, 5, 1-10. Available at http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/newletters/research-quarterly/V25N2.pdf.
- Kaehler, L. A., Babcock, R., DePrince, A. P., & Freyd, J. J. (2013). Betrayal trauma. In J. D. Ford & C. A. Courtois (Eds.), Treating complex traumatic stress disorders in children and adolescents (pp. 62–78). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Kisiel, C. L., Fehrenbach, T., Liang, L., Stolbach, B., McClelland, G., Griffin, G., Maj, N., Briggs, E. C., Vivrette, R. L., Layne, C. M., & Spinazzola, J. (2014a). Examining child sexual abuse in relation to complex patterns of trauma exposure: findings from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 6(S1), S29–S39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kliethermes, M & Wamser, R (2012). Adolescents with complex trauma. In Cohen, J.A., Mannarino, A. P. & Deblinger, E. (Eds). Trauma-focused CBT for children and adolescents: Treatment applications (pp 175–198). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Lloyd, R. (2012). Stages of Change in CSEC Counseling. In Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) Community Implementation Project (CCIP) Training Institute Manual, Girls Education and Mentoring Services, New York.Google Scholar
- McMullen, J., O’Callaghan, P., Shannon, C., Black, A., & Eakin, J. (2014). Group trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with former child soldiers and other war-affected boys in the DR Congo: a randomized clinical trial. Journal Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 1231–1241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Micheel, L., Smith, T. & McCurley, J. (2011). Commercial sexual exploitation of youth in Washington State; Unpublished report, Washington State Coalition of Sexual Assault Programs for the Office of Crime Victims Advocacy, January 2011.Google Scholar
- Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2013). Motivational interviewing: Helping people change. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Murray, L. A., Skavenski, S., Kane, J. C., Mayenya, J., Dorsey, S., Cohen, J. A., Baxter, P., Michalopoulos, L., Kasoma, M., Munthali, S., McKinna, B., Imasiku, M., & Bolton, P. A. (2015). Randomized controlled trial of effectiveness of TF-CBT among trauma affected children in Lusaka, Zambia. JAMA Pediatrics. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shared Hope International (2014). “Chosen” DVD available at www.sharedhope.org.
- West Coast Children’s Clinic. (2012). Research to Action: Sexually Exploited Minors (SEM) Needs and Strengths. Oakland: West Coast Children’s Clinic.Google Scholar