Current Climate Change Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 47–62 | Cite as

What Formed the North-South Contrasting Pattern of Summer Rainfall Changes over Eastern China?

  • Renguang WuEmail author
  • Ting You
  • Kaiming Hu
Monsoons and Climate (Y Ming, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Monsoons and Climate


Purpose of Review

The south-flood-north-drought pattern of summer rainfall change over eastern China has been attributed to external forcing (greenhouse gas concentration and aerosol emission changes) and a coupled ocean-atmosphere mode (the Pacific Decadal Oscillation; PDO). Here, we investigate the possibility whether the north-south contrasting pattern of summer rainfall change may occur without external forcing and the PDO effect.

Recent Findings

Analysis of preindustrial and historical climate model simulations and climatological sea surface temperature–forced atmospheric model simulations identified the north-south pattern of summer rainfall changes under constant external forcing and without the PDO signal. This suggests a possible role of atmospheric internal variability. The decadal rainfall change pattern appears as a manifestation of change in the frequency of occurrence of rainfall anomaly distribution from one specific pattern to the other between two neighboring periods.


The external forcing and the ocean-atmosphere coupled mode are not necessary conditions for the occurrence of the north-south pattern of summer rainfall changes over eastern China.


Summer rainfall change in eastern China The north-south contrast pattern External forcing The Pacific Decadal Oscillation Internal atmospheric variability 



We acknowledge the World Climate Research Programme’s Working Group on Coupled Modelling and the climate modeling groups for the CMIP5 climate model data obtained from The CMAP rainfall and NCEP-DOE reanalysis 2 data were obtained from The GPCP and GPCC precipitation data were obtained from The CRU data were obtained from The University of Delaware precipitation data were obtained from The HadISST1.1 SST data were obtained from The twentieth century reanalysis data were acquired via


This study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China grants 41530425, 41775080, and 41721004.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Monsoon System Research, Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.College of Earth and Planetary SciencesUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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