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Molecular engineering of nanobodies as tools in allergology: diagnostics and beyond

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Summary

Background

Molecular technologies have paved the way to improved understanding of allergic diseases in many ways, ranging from molecular allergens to tailor-made tools for analytical, diagnostic, and therapeutic purposes. Engineering of such molecules has become a mainstay in most biotechnical and biomedical areas. A not so new kid on the block is the nanobody, a single-domain antibody obtained from primarily camelid species. Despite their large promise and potential, it took nanobodies a long time to also enter the stage in allergology.

Methods

This review summarizes the state of the art and the feasibility of engineering nanobody-based tools for applications in allergology.

Results

In recent years, nanobodies with specificity for allergens have been increasingly generated. In parallel, their molecular engineering has enabled the development of derivatives that offer many advantages compared to standard antibody approaches. Hence, different application forms of nanobody-based molecules have been developed and reported in proof-of-concept studies.

Discussion

Recent studies give a first glimpse of the future possibilities of nanobody technologies in a complex system such as allergic diseases. It has become clear that the simplicity of the approaches as compared to regular antibody technologies will both broaden and deepen the scope of applications in allergology.

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Abbreviations

AIT:

allergen immunotherapy

BAT:

basophil activation test

CCD:

cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants

CDR:

complementarity-determining region

HBV:

honeybee venom

HCAbs:

heavy chain-only antibodies

HEK:

human embryonic kidney

HSA:

human serum albumin

IgE:

immunoglobulin E

MAT:

mast cell activation test

nb-hIgE:

nanobody-based human IgE

PTM:

post-translational modification

RSV:

respiratory syncytial virus

scFv:

single-chain antibody fragment

sdabs:

single-domain antibodies

sIgE:

specific IgE

tIgE:

total IgE

VH:

Heavy-chain variable domain

VHH:

single variable domain

YSD:

yeast surface display

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J. Baunvig Aagaard, A.-S. Ravn Ballegaard, P. Ommen Andersen and E. Spillner declare that they have no competing interests.

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Baunvig Aagaard, J., Ravn Ballegaard, AS., Ommen Andersen, P. et al. Molecular engineering of nanobodies as tools in allergology: diagnostics and beyond. Allergo J Int 32, 240–250 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40629-023-00261-w

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