Journal of Nephrology

, Volume 31, Issue 2, pp 249–256 | Cite as

Quality of life following hospitalization-associated acute kidney injury in children

  • Kelsey L. Richardson
  • R. Scott Watson
  • Sangeeta Hingorani
Original Article



Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in hospitalized children. The impact of AKI following hospitalization is not fully understood, particularly the impact on health related quality of life (HRQOL). The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between hospitalization-associated AKI and HRQOL in a pediatric population.

Study design

We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children with hospitalization-associated AKI. Eligible children were 1–19 years old with AKI defined by kidney disease improving global outcomes (KDIGO) criteria and had at least one completed pediatric quality of life (PedsQL) 4.0 Generic Core Scale survey (N = 139). Participants completed up to three surveys to reflect baseline, admission and follow-up status. We categorized children as having mild AKI (KDIGO stage 1, N = 73) or severe AKI (KDIGO stage 2 or 3, N = 66). Mean PedsQL scores were compared by AKI group. Those with both baseline and follow-up surveys were analyzed to determine the proportion who returned to their baseline level of function within 8 weeks of discharge.


Children with mild and severe AKI had similar baseline and admission PedsQL scores. Although children with severe AKI had lower follow-up scores, the results were not statistically significant (78.9 vs. 85.8, p = 0.11). Of those with severe AKI, 48% returned to their baseline level of physical functioning by follow-up, compared to 73% with mild AKI (p = 0.05).


This is the first study of HRQOL following hospitalization-associated AKI. We found that children with severe AKI had depressed physical functioning after discharge when compared to children with mild AKI.


Outcomes Acute kidney injury (AKI) Quality of life (QOL) Pediatric 



This study was supported by the National Institutes of Health T32 research training Grant (T32 DK007662). The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Rita Mangione-Smith, MD, MPH for supplying the PedsQL data for this manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards


This study was supported by the National Institutes of Health T32 research training Grant (T32 DK007662).

Conflict of interest

Kelsey Richardson is supported by the National Institutes of Health T32 research training grant (T32 DK007662). Sangeeta Hingorani is the principal investigator of this grant (T32 DK007662). The funding agency had no part in design, manuscript preparation or the decision to submit this manuscript. The authors declare that they have no other conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Italian Society of Nephrology 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of PediatricsUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric NephrologyOregon Health & Science UniversityPortlandUSA
  3. 3.Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of PediatricsUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  4. 4.Center for Child Health, Behavior and DevelopmentSeattle Children’s Research InstituteSeattleUSA
  5. 5.Clinical Research DivisionFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA

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