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Journal of Nephrology

, Volume 30, Issue 5, pp 653–661 | Cite as

Evaluation of fracture risk in chronic kidney disease

  • Pablo Antonio Ureña Torres
  • Martine Cohen-Solal
Review

Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with mineral and bone disorders (MBD) that are now considered as a syndrome. Bone fragility and a four to tenfold increased rate of skeletal fractures are often reported in CKD patients. The evaluation of the risk of these fractures in CKD patients should explore the same risk factors identified for the general population including low body weight, menopause, personal and familial history of osteoporosis, chronic inflammatory diseases, and corticosteroid therapy. The aim of this article is to provide a critical review of the tools used for the evaluation of bone loss and the risk of fracture in CKD patients, ranging from the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), fracture risk assessment (Frax™), quantitative computed tomography (QCT), high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQTC), to circulating biomarkers of bone metabolism including vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and some collagen type 1-related molecules indicators of bone remodeling.

Keywords

Bone Skeletal fracture Bone mineral density Phosphate Calcium PTH Vitamin D 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Italian Society of Nephrology 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pablo Antonio Ureña Torres
    • 1
    • 2
  • Martine Cohen-Solal
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Ramsay-Générale de SantéClinique du LandySaint-OuenFrance
  2. 2.Department of Renal Physiology, Necker HospitalUniversity of Paris DescartesParisFrance
  3. 3.INSERM U1132 and USPC Paris-DiderotParisFrance
  4. 4.Department of RheumatologyHôpital LariboisièreParisFrance

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