Adynamic bone disease is a predominant bone pattern in early stages of chronic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is complicated by disturbances of mineral and bone metabolism which start early in the course of the disease. It has long been assumed that high turnover bone lesions induced by secondary hyperparathyroidism are the predominant type of renal osteodystrophy from the start. However, there is increasing evidence in favor of the view that in early CKD stages low bone turnover is prevailing, with adynamic bone disease being the predominant form. Since serum parathyroid hormone levels increase progressively early on, and the most probable explanation is resistance to the skeletal action of this hormone. An early inhibition of the Wnt pathway with an increase in sclerostin and other inhibitors of Wnt signaling may be involved. Finally, a variety of other uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate and phosphate may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the low turnover bone disease observed in early stages of CKD. The optimal strategies to prevent and to treat adynamic bone disease in incipient CKD yet need to be defined. Targeting uremic toxins such as sclerostin, phosphate, and indoxyl sulfate may be relevant.
KeywordsRenal osteodystrophy Adynamic bone disease Early CKD PTH FGF23 Uremic toxins Indoxyl sulfate
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
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