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Journal of Nephrology

, Volume 30, Issue 5, pp 629–634 | Cite as

Adynamic bone disease is a predominant bone pattern in early stages of chronic kidney disease

Review

Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is complicated by disturbances of mineral and bone metabolism which start early in the course of the disease. It has long been assumed that high turnover bone lesions induced by secondary hyperparathyroidism are the predominant type of renal osteodystrophy from the start. However, there is increasing evidence in favor of the view that in early CKD stages low bone turnover is prevailing, with adynamic bone disease being the predominant form. Since serum parathyroid hormone levels increase progressively early on, and the most probable explanation is resistance to the skeletal action of this hormone. An early inhibition of the Wnt pathway with an increase in sclerostin and other inhibitors of Wnt signaling may be involved. Finally, a variety of other uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate and phosphate may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the low turnover bone disease observed in early stages of CKD. The optimal strategies to prevent and to treat adynamic bone disease in incipient CKD yet need to be defined. Targeting uremic toxins such as sclerostin, phosphate, and indoxyl sulfate may be relevant.

Keywords

Renal osteodystrophy Adynamic bone disease Early CKD PTH FGF23 Uremic toxins Indoxyl sulfate 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Italian Society of Nephrology 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Nephrology, Ambroise Paré Hospital, APHPVersailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University (Paris-Ile-de-France-Ouest University, UVSQ)Boulogne Billancourt and Villejuif CedexFrance
  2. 2.Inserm U-1018, Team 5Paris-Sud University (UPS) and Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University (Paris-Ile-de-France-Ouest University, UVSQ)VillejuifFrance

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