Journal of Nephrology

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 221–227 | Cite as

The impact of fluid balance on diagnosis, staging and prediction of mortality in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury

  • Charat Thongprayoon
  • Wisit Cheungpasitporn
  • Narat Srivali
  • Patompong Ungprasert
  • Wonngarm Kittanamongkolchai
  • Kianoush Kashani
Original Article

Abstract

Background

Fluid accumulation may delay recognition of acute kidney injury (AKI) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This study aims to evaluate the impact of fluid balance on the incidence, time of AKI diagnosis and predictive performance for outcomes of critically ill patients.

Methods

This study included a cohort of 7696 adult ICU patients at Mayo Clinic Hospital in year 2011 with at least one serum creatinine (SCr) measured in ICU. AKI was defined based on SCr criterion for stage I of KDIGO definition. The AKI incidence and predictive performance for 60-day mortality was compared before and after SCr adjustment for fluid balance.

Results

AKI was detected in 1860 (24.2 %) before and 1947 (25.3 %) after fluid balance adjustment (P < 0.001). Patients with AKI both before and after SCr adjustment had significantly higher 60-day mortality in comparison with patients who did not develop AKI (OR 3.38; 95 % CI 2.84–4.02). The risk of 60-day mortality in patients who met AKI criteria after but not before SCr adjustment was significantly higher than patients without AKI (OR 2.00; 95 % CI 1.25–3.11). In contrast, the risk of 60-day mortality in patients who met AKI criteria before but not after SCr adjustment was similar to patients without AKI (OR 1.19; 95 % CI 0.48–2.50). The C-statistic for unadjusted and adjusted SCr to predict 60-day mortality were 0.68 and 0.70, respectively (P = 0.001).

Conclusion

Our study found that SCr adjustment for fluid balance could result in a more accurate detection of AKI cases. We suggest using fluid balance adjustment for volume overload critically ill patients.

Keywords

Acute kidney injury Creatinine Fluid balance Mortality 

Notes

Conflict of interest

None.

Ethical standards

All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual subjects included in the study.

Supplementary material

40620_2015_211_MOESM1_ESM.docx (36 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 36 kb)

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Copyright information

© Italian Society of Nephrology 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charat Thongprayoon
    • 1
  • Wisit Cheungpasitporn
    • 1
  • Narat Srivali
    • 2
  • Patompong Ungprasert
    • 3
  • Wonngarm Kittanamongkolchai
    • 1
  • Kianoush Kashani
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Nephrology and HypertensionMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care MedicineMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  3. 3.Division of RheumatologyMayo ClinicRochesterUSA

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