Edmonton obesity staging system among pediatric patients: a validation and obesogenic risk factor analysis
The Edmonton Obesity Staging System for Pediatrics (EOSS-P) is a useful tool, delineating different obesity severity tiers associated with distinct treatment barriers. The aim of the study was to apply the EOSS-P on a Greek pediatric cohort and assess risk factors associated with each stage, compared to normal weight controls.
A total of 361 children (2–14 years old), outpatients of an Athenian hospital, participated in this case–control study by forming two groups: the obese (n = 203) and the normoweight controls (n = 158). Anthropometry, blood pressure, blood and biochemical markers, comorbidities and obesogenic lifestyle parameters were recorded and the EOSS-P was applied. Validation of EOSS-P stages was conducted by juxtaposing them with IOTF-defined weight status. Obesogenic risk factors’ analysis was conducted by constructing gender-and-age-adjusted (GA) and multivariate logistic models.
The majority of obese children were stratified at stage 1 (46.0%), 17.0% were on stage 0, and 37.0% on stage 2. The validation analysis revealed that EOSS-P stages greater than 0 were associated with diastolic blood pressure and levels of glucose, cholesterol, LDL and ALT. Reduced obesity odds were observed among children playing outdoors and increased odds for every screen time hour, both in the GA and in the multivariate analyses (all P < 0.05). Although participation in sports > 2 times/week was associated with reduced obesity odds in the GA analysis (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.33–0.98, P linear = 0.047), it lost its significance in the multivariate analysis (P linear = 0.145). Analogous results were recorded in the analyses of the abovementioned physical activity risk factors for the EOSS-P stages. Linear relationships were observed for fast-food consumption and IOTF-defined obesity and higher than 0 EOSS-P stages. Parental obesity status was associated with all EOSS-P stages and IOTF-defined obesity status.
Few outpatients were healthy obese (stage 0), while the majority exhibited several comorbidities. Since each obesity tier entails different impacts to disease management, the study herein highlights modifiable factors facilitating descend to lower stages, and provides insight for designing tailored approaches tackling the high national pediatric obesity rates.
KeywordsChildren Adolescents Obese Weight status Obesity management Primary care Greece EOSS Obesity staging
The authors thank all of the participating families for their time and are grateful to all practitioners who were involved in data collection.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
No competing financial interests exist.
The authors confirm that this retrospective work was performed in compliance with Ethical Standards and according to Institutional Review Board standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all parents/guardians of participants included in the study.
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