Journal of Endocrinological Investigation

, Volume 41, Issue 5, pp 597–607 | Cite as

The effect of vitamin D supplementation in combination with low-calorie diet on anthropometric indices and androgen hormones in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

  • S. Jafari-Sfidvajani
  • R. Ahangari
  • M. Hozoori
  • H. Mozaffari-Khosravi
  • H. Fallahzadeh
  • A. Nadjarzadeh
Original Article



Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is known as the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive age women. The aim of this studywas to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation in combination with low-calorie diet on anthropometric indices, reproductive hormones and menstrual regularity in overweight and obese PCOS women.


In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 PCOS women with vitamin D insufficiency were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of either (1) weight-loss intervention + 50,000 IU/week oral vitamin D3 or (2) weight-loss intervention + placebo. At the beginning and end of the study, the anthropometric indices, body composition, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and free androgen index (FAI) were measured and regularity of menses was compared among the two groups.


After 12-week intervention, median of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 significantly increased from 18.5 (10.75–20) ng/ml to 42.69 (34–53.25) ng/ml in vitamin D group compared to placebo group (p < 001). Moreover, there was a significant improvement in frequency regular menstrual cycle (p = 0.01). Mean of weight, body mass index, fat mass, waist and hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio significantly decreased in both groups, but was not different between two groups. Mean of total testosterone insignificantly decreased from 0.7 to 0.5 ng/ml in vitamin D group (p = 0.18). In addition, we did not observe significant differences regarding DHEAS, FAI and SHBG between two groups.


In women with PCOS, androgen profile did not change with vitamin D supplementation when combined with low-calorie diet, but menstrual frequency significantly improved.

Clinical Trial Registration Number



Polycystic ovary syndrome Vitamin D Androgens Low-calorie diet Menstrual cycle Randomized controlled trial 



The authors thank all the women that participated in the present study. This study was done as a MS thesis in Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Compliance with ethical standards


Financial support for this study was provided by Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

Ethical approval

This research conducted according to Helsinki statement and the protocol was approved by Ethics Committee in Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences.

Informed consent

All participants completed written informed consent.


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Copyright information

© Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nutrition and Food Security Research CenterShahid Sadoughi University of Medical SciencesYazdIran
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition, School of Public HealthShahid Sadoughi University of Medical SciencesYazdIran
  3. 3.Obstetric and Gynecology Department, Faculty of MedicineQom University of Medical SciencesQomIran
  4. 4.Nutritional Community Medicine Qom University of Medical SciencesQomIran
  5. 5.Diabetic Research CenterShahid Sadoughi University of Medical SciencesYazdIran
  6. 6.Research Center for Prevention and Epidemiology of Non-communicable Disease, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical SciencesYazdIran

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