Cross-cultural and socio-demographic correlates of homophobic attitude among university students in three European countries
- 586 Downloads
The aim of this study was to investigate homophobic attitudes in three European countries: Italy, Albania, and Ukraine. One thousand and forty-eight students were recruited in Italian (n = 766), Albanian (n = 180), and Ukrainian (n = 102) university centers.
A socio-demographic questionnaire and Homophobia Scale (HS) were administered by our staff.
Cross-cultural and significant differences among Italian, Albanian, and Ukrainian students were found on the Homophobia Scale (HS; Italy: mean = 22.26 ± 16.73; Albania: mean = 38.15 ± 17.28; Ukraine: mean = 59.18 ± 16.23). The analysis of socio-demographic characteristics revealed that the male gender emerged as main predictor of homophobic attitude in all the three countries, although also a conservative political orientation and the religious belief predict higher homophobia levels in Italy and Albania, particularly.
This study revealed that in these European countries assessed, attitudes toward homosexuality are different. Ukrainians display higher levels of homophobia than Albanians and Italians, confirming the central role of cultural differences in homophobic attitudes. Nevertheless, some socio-demographic aspects such as identification as male have a similar influence on homophobic attitudes in all assessed populations.
KeywordsCross-cultural differences Homophobic attitude Socio-demographic characteristics
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The study protocol was approved by our ethics committee for investigations involving human subjects.
Informed consent was obtained from participants included in the study.
- 1.FRA Survey data explorer—LGBT Survey (2012). http://fra.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-and-maps/survey-data-explorer-lgbt-survey-2012
- 2.VOXDIRITTI (2014) Omofobia: bersaglio gay e lesbiche. http://www.voxdiritti.it/?p=3675
- 3.Hzizaj A (2013) Legal framework for the protection of LGBT adolescents from violence and discrimination in the pre-university education system in Albania. Balkan Soc Sci Rev 2:151–167Google Scholar
- 6.Ciocca G, Tuziak B, Limoncin E, Mollaioli D, Capuano N, Martini A, Carosa E, Fisher AD, Maggi M, Niolu C, Siracusano A, Lenzi A, Jannini EA (2015) Psychoticism, immature defense mechanisms and a fearful attachment style are associated with a higher homophobic attitude. J Sex Med 12(9):1953–1960. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12975 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 24.Lingiardi V, Nardelli N (2014) Negative attitudes to lesbians and gay men: persecutors and victims. In: Corona C, Maggi M, Jannini EA (eds) Emotional, physical and sexual abuse. SI Publishing, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- 29.Takács J, Szalma I (2013) How to measure homophobia in an international comparison? Družboslovne Razprave 73:11–42Google Scholar
- 30.Takács J, Szalma I (2011) Homophobia and same-sex partnership legislation in Europe. Equal Divers Inclu Int J Refract Met Hard Mater 30(5):356–378Google Scholar
- 33.Ross MW, Berg RC, Schmidt AJ, Hospers HJ, Breveglieri M, Furegato M, Weatherburn P (2013) Internalised homonegativity predicts HIV-associated risk behavior in European men who have sex with men in a 38-country cross-sectional study: some public health implications of homophobia. BMJ Open. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001928 Google Scholar
- 34.Berg RC, Ross MW, Weatherburn P, Schmidt AJ (2013) Structural and environmental factors are associated with internalised homonegativity in men who have sex with men: findings from the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS) in 38 countries. Soc Sci Med 78:61–69. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.11.033 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 39.Ciocca G, Limoncin E, Mollaioli D, Gravina GL, Carosa E, Di Sante S, Gianfrilli D, Lombardo F, Lenzi A, Jannini EA (2015) SIAMS survey on sexological screening during the assisted reproductive technologies in Italy. J Endocrinol Invest 38(9):999–1005. doi: 10.1007/s40618-015-0286-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 40.Fisher AD, Castellini G, Ristori J, Casale H, Giovanardi G, Carone N, Fanni E, Mosconi M, Ciocca G, Jannini EA, Ricca V, Lingiardi V, Maggi M (2016) Who has the worst attitudes toward sexual minorities? Comparison of transphobia and homophobia levels in gender dysphoric individuals, the general population and health care providers. J Endocrinol Investig. doi: 10.1007/s40618-016-0552-3 Google Scholar
- 42.Fisher AD, Ristori J, Bandini E, Giordano S, Mosconi M, Jannini EA, Greggio NA, Godano A, Manieri C, Meriggiola C, Ricca V, Dettore D, Maggi M (2014) Medical treatment in gender dysphoric adolescents endorsed by SIAMS–SIE–SIEDP–ONIG. J Endocrinol Investig 37(7):675–687. doi: 10.1007/s40618-014-0077-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar