Journal of Endocrinological Investigation

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 227–233 | Cite as

Cross-cultural and socio-demographic correlates of homophobic attitude among university students in three European countries

  • G. Ciocca
  • C. Niolu
  • D. Déttore
  • P. Antonelli
  • S. Conte
  • B. Tuziak
  • E. Limoncin
  • D. Mollaioli
  • E. Carosa
  • G. L. Gravina
  • S. Di Sante
  • G. Di Lorenzo
  • A. D. Fisher
  • M. Maggi
  • A. Lenzi
  • A. Siracusano
  • E. A. Jannini
Original Article



The aim of this study was to investigate homophobic attitudes in three European countries: Italy, Albania, and Ukraine. One thousand and forty-eight students were recruited in Italian (n = 766), Albanian (n = 180), and Ukrainian (n = 102) university centers.


A socio-demographic questionnaire and Homophobia Scale (HS) were administered by our staff.


Cross-cultural and significant differences among Italian, Albanian, and Ukrainian students were found on the Homophobia Scale (HS; Italy: mean = 22.26 ± 16.73; Albania: mean = 38.15 ± 17.28; Ukraine: mean = 59.18 ± 16.23). The analysis of socio-demographic characteristics revealed that the male gender emerged as main predictor of homophobic attitude in all the three countries, although also a conservative political orientation and the religious belief predict higher homophobia levels in Italy and Albania, particularly.


This study revealed that in these European countries assessed, attitudes toward homosexuality are different. Ukrainians display higher levels of homophobia than Albanians and Italians, confirming the central role of cultural differences in homophobic attitudes. Nevertheless, some socio-demographic aspects such as identification as male have a similar influence on homophobic attitudes in all assessed populations.


Cross-cultural differences Homophobic attitude Socio-demographic characteristics 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The study protocol was approved by our ethics committee for investigations involving human subjects.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Ciocca
    • 1
  • C. Niolu
    • 1
  • D. Déttore
    • 2
  • P. Antonelli
    • 2
  • S. Conte
    • 3
  • B. Tuziak
    • 4
  • E. Limoncin
    • 1
  • D. Mollaioli
    • 4
  • E. Carosa
    • 4
  • G. L. Gravina
    • 4
  • S. Di Sante
    • 5
  • G. Di Lorenzo
    • 1
  • A. D. Fisher
    • 6
  • M. Maggi
    • 6
  • A. Lenzi
    • 5
  • A. Siracusano
    • 1
  • E. A. Jannini
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Systems MedicineTor Vergata University of RomeRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Health SciencesUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  3. 3.Catholic University “Our Lady of Good Council”TiranaAlbania
  4. 4.Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical SciencesUniversity of L’AquilaL’AquilaItaly
  5. 5.Department of Experimental MedicineSapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  6. 6.Department of Clinical PhysiopathologyUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly

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