The Analysis of Verbal Behavior

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 107–124 | Cite as

Verbal Stimulus Control and the Intraverbal Relation

Special Section: The Intraverbal Relation

Abstract

The importance of the intraverbal relation is missed in most theories of language. Skinner (1957) attributes this to traditional semantic theories of meaning that focus on the nonverbal referents of words and neglect verbal stimuli as separate sources of control for linguistic behavior. An analysis of verbal stimulus control is presented, along with its distinction from nonverbal stimulus control and motivational control. It is suggested that there are at least four different types of increasingly complex verbal discriminations relevant to speaker and listener behavior: simple, compound, verbal conditional, and verbal function-altering (Eikeseth & Smith, 2013; Schlinger & Blakely, 1994). Separate but interlocking accounts of how these specific types of verbal stimuli produce different evocative and function-altering effects for the speaker and for the listener are provided. Finally, the effects of weakening verbal stimulus control and the loss of intraverbal behavior are considered, especially as they relate to dementia, aphasia, and traumatic brain injury.

Keywords

Aphasia Dementia Evocative and function-altering effects Intraverbal Skinner Verbal behavior Verbal stimulus control 

References

  1. Aguirre, A. A., Valentino, A. L., & LeBlanc, L. A. (2016). Empirical investigations of the intraverbal: 2005-2015. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 32. doi:10.1007/s40616-016-0064-4.
  2. Axe, J. B. (2008). Conditional discrimination in the intraverbal relation: a review and recommendations for future research. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 24, 159–174.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, J. C., LeBlanc, L. A., & Raetz, P. B. (2008). A behavioral conceptualization of aphasia. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 24, 147–158.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Bloom, L. (1974). Developmental relationship between receptive and expressive language. In R. L. Schiefelbusch & L. L. Lloyd (Eds.), Language perspectives, acquisition, retardation, and intervention (pp. 285–311). Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, R. (1973). A first language: the early stages. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Catania, A. C. (2013). Learning (5th ed.). Cambridge, MA: Sloan Publishing.Google Scholar
  7. Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic structures. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  8. Coon, J. T., & Miguel, C. F. (2012). The role of increased exposure to transfer-of-stimulus control procedures on the acquisition of intraverbal behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45, 657–666. doi:10.1901/jaba.2012.45-657.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Dixon, M. R., Baker, J. C., & Sadowski, K. A. (2011). Applying Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior to persons with dementia. Behavior Therapy, 42, 120–126. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2010.05.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Eikeseth, S., & Smith, D. P. (2013). An analysis of verbal stimulus control in intraverbal behavior: implications for practice and applied research. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 29, 125–135.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Esch, B. E., LaLonde, K. B., & Esch, J. W. (2010). Speech and language assessment: a verbal behavior analysis. The Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Applied Behavior Analysis, 5, 166–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Greer, R. D., Yuan, L., & Gautreaux, G. (2005). Novel dictation and intraverbal responses as a function of a multiple exemplar history. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 21, 99–116.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Gross, A. C., Fuqua, R. W., & Merritt, T. A. (2013). Evaluation of verbal behavior in older adults. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 29, 85–99.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Hedge, H. M. (2010). Language and grammar: a behavioral analysis. The Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Applied Behavior Analysis, 5, 90–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ingvarsson, E. T., & Le, D. D. (2011). Further evaluation of prompting tactics for establishing intraverbal responding in children with autism. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 27, 75–93.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Ingvarsson, E. T., Tiger, J. H., Hanley, G. P., & Stephenson, K. M. (2007). An evaluation of intraverbal training to generate socially appropriate responses to novel questions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 411–429. doi:10.1901/jaba.2007.40-411.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Keller, F. S., & Schoenfeld, W. N. (1950). Principles of psychology. E. Norwalk: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  18. Kisamore, A. N., Karsten, A. M., Mann, C. C., & Conde, K. A. (2013). Effects of a differential observing response on intraverbal performance of preschool children: a preliminary investigation. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 29, 101–108.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Kodak, T., Fuchtman, R., & Paden, A. (2012). A comparison of intraverbal training procedures for children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45, 155–160. doi:10.1901/jaba.2012.45-155.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Leaf, R., & McEachin, J. (1999). A work in progress. New York: DRL Books.Google Scholar
  21. LeBlanc, L. A., Raetz, P. B., & Feliciano, L. (2011). Behavioral gerontology. In W. W. Fisher, C. C. Piazza, & H. S. Roane (Eds.), Handbook of applied behavior analysis (pp. 472–488). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  22. Lechago, S. A., Carr, J. E., Kisamore, A. N., & Grow, L. L. (2015). The effects of multiple exemplar instruction on the relation between listener and intraverbal categorization repertoires. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 31, 76–95. doi:10.1007/s40616-015-0027-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Lovaas, O. I. (2003). Teaching individuals with developmental delays. Austin TX: Pro-ed.Google Scholar
  24. Lowenkron, B. (1984). Coding responses and the generalization of matching to sample in children. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 42, 1–18. doi:10.1901/jeab.1984.42-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Lowenkron, B. (1998). Some logical functions of joint control. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 69, 327–354. doi:10.1901/jeab.1998.69-327.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Lowenkron, B. (2006). Joint control and the selection of stimuli from their description. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 22, 129–151.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Michael, J. (1982). Distinguishing between discriminative and motivating functions of stimuli. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 37, 149–155. doi:10.1901/jeab.1982.37-149.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Michael, J. (1985). Two kinds of verbal behavior plus a possible third. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 3, 1–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Michael, J. (1993). Establishing operations. The Behavior Analyst, 16, 191–206.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Michael, J. (1995). What every student in behavior analysis ought know: a system for classifying the multiple effects of behavioral variables. The Behavior Analyst, 18, 272–284.Google Scholar
  31. Michael, J. (2000). Implications and refinements of the establishing operation concept. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33, 401–410. doi:10.1901/jaba.2000.33-401.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Michael, J. (2004). Concepts and principles of behavior analysis (2nd ed.). Kalamazoo, MI: Association for Behavior Analysis International.Google Scholar
  33. Michael, J. (2007). Motivating operations. In J. O. Cooper, T. E. Heron, & W. L. Heward (Eds.), Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed., pp. 374–391). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  34. Michael, J., Palmer, D. C., & Sundberg, M. L. (2011). The multiple control of verbal behavior. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 27, 3–22.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Miguel, C. F., Petursdottir, A. I., & Carr, J. E. (2005). The effects of multiple-tact and listener discrimination training on the acquisition of intraverbal behavior. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 21, 27–41.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Oah, S., & Dickinson, A. M. (1989). A review of empirical studies of verbal behavior. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 7, 53–68.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Oleson, C. R., & Baker, J. C. (2013). Teaching mands to older adults with dementia. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 30, 113–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Palmer, D. C. (1991). A behavioral interpretation of memory. In L. J. Hayes & P. N. Chase (Eds.), Dialogues on verbal behavior (pp. 261–279). Reno, NV: Context Press.Google Scholar
  39. Palmer, D. C. (2004). Data in search of a principle: a review of Relational frame theory: a post-Skinnerian account of human language and cognition. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 81, 189–204. doi:10.1901/jeab.2004.81-189.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Palmer, D. C. (2012). The role of atomic repertoires in the interpretation of complex behavior. The Behavior Analyst, 35, 59–73.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Palmer, D. C. (2016). On intraverbal control and the definition of the intraverbal. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 32, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pérez-González, L. A., & García-Asenjo, L. (2016). Emergence of intraverbals with antonyms derived from relations with verbal and nonverbal stimuli. The Psychological Record, 66, 351–368. doi:10.1007/s40732-016-0177-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pinker, S. (1994). The language instinct: how the mind creates language. NY: Harper-Collins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sautter, R. A., & LeBlanc, L. A. (2006). Empirical applications of Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior with humans. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 22, 35–48.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Sautter, R. A., LeBlanc, L. A., Jay, A. A., Goldsmith, T. R., & Carr, J. E. (2011). The role of problem solving in complex intraverbal repertoires. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44, 227–244. doi:10.1901/jaba.2011.44-227.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Schlinger, H. D. (2008). Listening is behaving verbally. The Behavior Analyst, 31, 145–161.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Schlinger, H. D., & Blakely, E. (1987). Function-altering effects of contingency-specifying stimuli. The Behavior Analyst, 10, 41–45.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Schlinger, H. D., & Blakely, E. (1994). A descriptive taxonomy of environmental operations and its implications for behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 17, 43–57.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Skinner, B. F. (1938). Behavior of organisms. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  50. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  51. Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Skinner, B. F. (1969). Contingencies of reinforcement: a theoretical analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.Google Scholar
  53. Slobin, D. I. (1973). Cognitive prerequisites for the development of grammar. In C. A. Ferguson & D. I. Slobin (Eds.), Studies of child language development (pp. 175–202). New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Google Scholar
  54. Sundberg, M. L. (2014). The verbal behavior milestones assessment and placement program: the VB-MAPP (2nd ed.). Concord, CA: AVB Press.Google Scholar
  55. Sundberg, M. L., & Partington, J. W. (1998). Teaching language to children with autism or other developmental disabilities. Concord, CA: AVB Press.Google Scholar
  56. Sundberg, C. T., & Sundberg, M. L. (1990). Comparing topography-based verbal behavior with stimulus selection-based verbal behavior. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 8, 31–41.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Sundberg, M. L., & Sundberg, C. A. (2011). Intraverbal behavior and verbal conditional discriminations in typically developing children and children with autism. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 27, 23–43.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Sundberg, M. L., San Juan, B., Dawdy, M., & Arguelles, M. (1990). The acquisition of tacts, mands, and intraverbals by individuals with traumatic brain injury. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 8, 83–99.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Valentino, A. L., Shillingsburg, M., & Call, N. A. (2012). Comparing the effects of echoic prompts and echoic prompts plus modeled prompts on intraverbal behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45, 431–435. doi:10.1901/jaba.2012.45-431.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Behavior Analysis International 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sundberg and AssociatesConcordUSA

Personalised recommendations