The Analysis of Verbal Behavior

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 62–68 | Cite as

Observing Tacting Increases Uninstructed Tacts in Children with Autism

  • Luis Antonio Pérez-González
  • Ana Pastor
  • José Julio Carnerero
Brief Report

Abstract

The effects of observing an adult emitting tacts on children’s rate of uninstructed (i.e., “spontaneous”) tacts were examined in three children diagnosed with autism. Each participant was exposed to two conditions in four settings each: in condition 1, participants received 20 trials of teacher-initiated interactions in which the child was asked to tact 20 objects during 5 min. Condition 2 was identical to condition 1 except that the teacher also tacted 20 objects interspersed with the 20 tact trials. The number of uninstructed tacts was recorded in both conditions. Children emitted between 1.58 and 2.68 times more uninstructed tacts in condition 2 than in condition 1. These results indicate that teachers’ emission of tacts increases the emission of uninstructed tacts in children with autism.

Keywords

Tacts Uninstructed tacts Modeling Language observing Spontaneous speech Induction Autism 

References

  1. Baer, D. M., Peterson, R. F., & Sherman, J. A. (1967). The development of imitation by reinforcing behavioral similarity to a model. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 21, 405–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Catania, A. C. (1998). Learning. Prentice Hall: Upple Saddle River, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  3. Greer, R. D., Dudek-Singer, J., & Gautreaux, G. (2006). Observational learning. International Journal of Psychology, 41, 486–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Greer, R. D., McCorkle, N., & Williams, G. (1989). A sustained analysis of the behaviors of schooling. Behavioral Residential Treatment, 4, 113–141.Google Scholar
  5. Greer, R. D., & Ross, D. E. (2008). Verbal behavior analysis: Inducing and expanding new verbal capabilities in children with language delays. New York: Pearson.Google Scholar
  6. Greer, R. D., & Speckman, J. (2009). The integration of speaker and listener responses: a theory of verbal development. The Psychological Record, 59, 449–488.Google Scholar
  7. Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1975). Incidental teaching of language in the preschool. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 411–420.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1996). Meaningful differences in the everyday life of America’s children. NY: Paul Brookes.Google Scholar
  9. Horne, P. J., & Lowe, C. F. (1996). On the origins of naming and other symbolic behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 65, 185–241.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Koegel, R. L., O’Dell, M. C., & Koegel, L. K. (1987). A natural language teaching paradigm for nonverbal autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17, 187–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Krantz, P. J., & McClannahan, L. E. (1998). Social interaction skills for children with autism: a script-fading procedure for beginning readers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 191–202.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lydon, H., Healy, O., Leader, G., & Keohane, D. D. (2008). The effects of intensive tact instruction on three verbal operants in non-instructional settings by two children with autism (pp. 35–46). Special Issue: Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Applied Behavior Analysis.Google Scholar
  13. McGee, G. G., Krantz, P. J., & McClannahan, L. E. (1985). The facilitative effects of incidental teaching on preposition use by autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 17–31.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pereira-Delgado, J. A., & Oblak, M. (2007). The effects of daily intensive tact instruction on the emission of pure mands and tacts in non-instructional settings by three pre school children with developmental delays. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Interventions, 4, 392–411.Google Scholar
  15. Pereira-Delgado, J. A., Greer, R. D., & Speckman-Collins, J. (2006). The effects of using a mirror to induce generalized imitation. Paper presented as part of a symposium at the thirty-second annual convention of the Association for Applied Behavior Analysis International. GA: Atlanta.Google Scholar
  16. Pistoljevic, N. (2008). The effects of multiple exemplar instruction and intensive tact instructional histories on the acquisition of naming in preschoolers. Columbia University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences: Unpublished dissertation.Google Scholar
  17. Pistoljevic, N., & Greer, R. D. (2006). The effects of daily intensive tact instruction on preschool students’ emission of pure tacts and mands in non-instructional setting. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Interventions, 1, 103–120.Google Scholar
  18. Ross, D. E., Singer-Dudek, J., & Greer, R. D. (2005). The teacher performance rate accuracy scale (TPRA): training as evaluation. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 40, 411–423.Google Scholar
  19. Schauffler, G., & Greer, R. D. (2006). The effects of intensive tact instruction on audience accurate tacts and conversational units. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavioral Interventions, 3, 120–132.Google Scholar
  20. Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. Englewood, NJ: Prentice Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Williams, G., Carnerero, J. J., & Pérez-González, L. A. (2006). Generalization of tacting actions in children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39, 233–237.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Williams, G., & Greer, R. D. (1993). A comparison of verbal-behavior and linguistic-communication curricula for training developmentally delayed adolescents to acquire and maintain vocal speech. Behaviorology, 1, 31–46.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Behavior Analysis International 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luis Antonio Pérez-González
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ana Pastor
    • 2
  • José Julio Carnerero
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of OviedoOviedoSpain
  2. 2.Centro Al-MudarïsCórdobaSpain

Personalised recommendations