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Prevalence and Determinants of Contraceptive Utilization among Women in the Reproductive Age Group in Ethiopia

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Abstract

Introduction

Despite the huge advantages of family planning programs, contraception use in Ethiopia remains low. Determining the magnitude and associated factors of contraceptive utilization helps to take action for further improvement. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and identify determinants of using contraceptives among women of reproductive age in Ethiopia.

Methods

The 2019 Ethiopian Mini Demographic and Health Survey 2019 (EMDHS 2019) dataset was utilized in this population-based investigation. In the current study, 8885 reproductive-age women were included. Binary logistic regression analysis was employed to examine significant factors associated with the utilization of contraceptive methods. The analysis was done using SPSS software version 20.

Results

The prevalence of contraceptive utilization amongst women’s reproductive age in Ethiopia was 37.6%. Of all contraceptive users, a large number of women, 57.0%, used injectable kinds of contraceptives followed by implants (24.3%). Participants aged 20–29 (AOR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.79–3.01) and aged 30–39 years (AOR = 3.12, 95%CI: 2.58–3.78); from Addis Ababa (AOR = 3.27, 95%CI:2.42–4.43), Dire Dawa (AOR = 2.96, 95%CI:2.28–3.84), and urban residence (AOR = 2.49, 95%CI:2.13–2.91); who had secondary education level 1.391(AOR = 1.14–1.70), diploma and above (AOR = 1.39, 95%CI:1.12–1.72); being in rich wealth index (AOR = 1.260, 95%CI:1.06–1.50); having five or more children (AOR = 1.37, 95%CI:1.17–1.61); and who had knowledge about contraceptives (AOR = 1.88, 95%CI:1.42–2.48) and being married (AOR = 5.82, 95%CI: 4.60–7.36) had higher odds of utilizing contraceptives, while women aged 40–49 years (AOR = 0.93, 95%CI: 0.89–0.96) and from residential region of Oromia (AOR = 0.516, 95%CI: 0.40–0.67), Somalia (AOR = 0.48, 95%CI: 0.38–0.62) and Benishangul (AOR = 0.53, 95%CI: 0.40–0.70) had lower odds of using contraception.

Conclusions

The study concluded that the use of contraceptives remained very low (found below the national target) in Ethiopia. Factors like age, educational level, number of children, and region of the women, religion, wealth index, and marital status are determinant factors associated with contraceptive use among reproductive-age women in Ethiopia. For a more successful intervention approach that encourages the use of contraceptive methods, these variables should be considered.

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Data Availability

The datasets used in this study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Abbreviations

ECP:

Emergency contraceptive pill

EDHS:

Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey

IUCD:

Intra uterine contraceptive device

LAM:

Lactational amenorrhea method

MDG:

Millennium development goal

SDM:

Standard day method

SNNPR:

South Nations Nationality and Peoples Region

WHO:

World Health Organization

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Acknowledgements

We would like to thanks the Ethiopian demographic health survey teams for this nice data collected from all parts of the country and for sending an authorization letter to us, to generate and continue this study using the data set from their database.

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Both authors designed the study, participated in the data extraction, performed analysis, interpreted results, and drafted and revised the manuscript. Finally, all authors read and approved the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Amanuel Mengistu Merera.

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Ethical clearance for this study was obtained from Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute (EHNRI) Review Board, the National Research Ethics Review Committee (NRERC) at the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Institutional Review Board of ICF International, and the communicable disease control (CDC). The author requested access to the data from the demographic health survey program team and access was granted to use the data for this study.

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Merera, A.M., Lelisho, M.E. & Pandey, D. Prevalence and Determinants of Contraceptive Utilization among Women in the Reproductive Age Group in Ethiopia. J. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities 9, 2340–2350 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40615-021-01171-9

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