A total of 4,242 individuals clicked on the SAHA survey link and initiated the survey with 1,550 (36.5%) completing 90% or more of the survey questions. A total of 638 individuals were included in this analysis with non-missing data on vaccine intention, age, gender, education, insurance, income, employment, citizenship, and religiosity. Data collection started on May 28, 2020, 50% of participants included in this analysis completed the survey by July 1 and 75% completed the survey by August 4.
Over half (52.0%) of all respondents were female, most were between the ages of 18 and 25 (35.4%), and only 8.9% of survey participants were over 55 years of age (Table 1). Almost a third (30.4%) reported an annual household income of over $100,000, and more than a quarter (25.1%) reported an income less than $5,000.
More than half of respondents (53.1%) were born outside of the USA, and an even larger percentage (87.5%) had parents born outside of the USA. The majority of respondents (47.3%) have lived in the USA for 20 or more years, and 66.9% were US citizens. At the time of the survey, 10.7% of survey respondents had tested positive for COVID-19 or were suspected of having it, while 36.8% reported knowing someone in their immediate social environment who had been infected with COVID-19. Many respondents (33.2%) reported living in a household with five or more people, while only 11.3% reported living alone.
Vaccine Hesitancy and Bivariate Associations with Selected Variables
More than half (N = 362, 56.7%) of respondents reported they would likely receive a COVID-19 vaccine when it became available, 35.7% (N = 228) were unsure about their vaccine intention, and a small but considerable proportion (N = 48, 7.5%) did not intend to receive the vaccine. In bivariate analyses, age, gender, and religiosity were significantly associated with vaccine intention (Table 1). Those between the ages of 35 and 54 comprised 41.7% of those with no intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccine (p = 0.04). Women made up a large majority of those unlikely to receive a vaccine (72.9%, p < 0.01). Likewise, participants who reported religion as being very or extremely important to them comprised 85.4% of those who were unlikely to receive a vaccine (p < 0.01). More than three quarters (77.0%) of the sample had not been infected with COVID-19, and this group comprised 81.3% of those unlikely to receive the vaccine (p < 0.01). Those who lived in households of five or more people made up 33.2% of the sample, but comprised 45.8% of those who were unlikely to receive the vaccine (p < 0.01).
In a logistic regression model adjusting for sociodemographic, immigration/acculturation, and COVID-19 risk variables, Arab American women had higher odds of reporting being unlikely to receive the vaccine compared to men (AOR: 5.00, 95% CI: 1.95, 12.83, Table 2). Those between the ages of 35 and 54 had higher odds of being unlikely to receive the vaccine when compared to those between the ages of 18 and 25 (AOR: 3.36; 95% CI: 1.34, 8.39). Arab Americans living in a household of two people had higher odds of being unlikely to receive the vaccine when compared to those living in a household of 5 or more people (AOR: 0.12, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.57).
Arab American women had twice the odds of reporting being unsure about receiving the COVID-19 vaccine compared to Arab American men (OR = 1.68; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.57, Table 3). Religiosity, previous COVID-19 infection, and household size were also significant predictors for vaccine hesitancy (Table 3). Participants who identified as being not at all religious were less likely to be unsure about the vaccine compared to those who identified as very or extremely religious (OR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.78). Additionally, respondents who had tested positive for COVID-19 or were suspected to have been infected were less likely to be unsure about their vaccine intention (OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.83) when compared to those who had never been infected. Lastly, those living alone had lower odds of being unsure about receiving the COVID vaccine compared to participants living in households of five or more people (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.25, 0.99).