Baio J, et al. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years—Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2014. MMWR Surveillance Summaries. 2018;67(6):1.
Getahun D, Jacobsen SJ, Fassett MJ, Chen W, Demissie K, Rhoads GG. Recent trends in childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167(3):282–8.
Blumberg, S. J., et al. Changes in prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder in school-aged US children: 2007 to 2011–2012. 2013: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics.
Fombonne E. Epidemiology of pervasive developmental disorders. Pediatr Res. 2009;65(6):591–8.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®): American Psychiatric Pub; 2013.
Christensen DL, et al. Prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years—autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2012. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2018;65(13):1.
Friedman DJ, Gibson Parrish R, Fox MH. A review of global literature on using administrative data to estimate prevalence of intellectual and developmental disabilities. J Policy Pract Intellect Disab. 2018;15(1):43–62.
Fujiura GT, Li H, Magaña S. Health services use and costs for Americans with intellectual and developmental disabilities: a national analysis. Intellect Dev Dis. 2018;56(2):101–18.
Mandell DS, Wiggins LD, Carpenter LA, Daniels J, DiGuiseppi C, Durkin MS, et al. Racial/ethnic disparities in the identification of children with autism spectrum disorders. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(3):493–8.
Boyle CA, Boulet S, Schieve LA, Cohen RA, Blumberg SJ, Yeargin-Allsopp M, et al. Trends in the prevalence of developmental disabilities in US children, 1997–2008. Pediatrics. 2011;127(6):1034–42.
Pedersen, A., et al., Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children. Pediatrics, 2012: p. peds. 2011–1145.
Froehlich TE, Lanphear BP, Epstein JN, Barbaresi WJ, Katusic SK, Kahn RS. Prevalence, recognition, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a national sample of US children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161(9):857–64.
Zablotsky B, Black LI, Blumberg SJ. Estimated prevalence of children with diagnosed developmental disabilities in the United States, 2014-2016. NCHS data brief. 2017;(291):1–8.
CDC, Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders—autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 sites, United States, 2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Surveillance Summaries, 2012. 61(3):1–19.
Kogan MD, Blumberg SJ, Schieve LA, Boyle CA, Perrin JM, Ghandour RM, et al. Prevalence of parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder among children in the US, 2007. Pediatrics. 2009;124(5):1395–403.
CDC. Mental health in the United States: parental report of diagnosed autism in children aged 4-17 years--United States, 2003-2004. MMWR. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006;55(17):481.
Schieve LA, Boulet SL, Blumberg SJ, Kogan MD, Yeargin-Allsopp M, Boyle CA, et al. Association between parental nativity and autism spectrum disorder among US-born non-Hispanic white and Hispanic children, 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health. Disabil Health J. 2012;5(1):18–25.
Croen LA, Grether JK, Selvin S. Descriptive epidemiology of autism in a California population: who is at risk? J Autism Dev Disord. 2002;32(3):217–24.
Cuffe SP, Moore CG, McKeown RE. Prevalence and correlates of ADHD symptoms in the national health interview survey. J Atten Disord. 2005;9(2):392–401.
Collins KP, Cleary SD. Racial and ethnic disparities in parent-reported diagnosis of ADHD: National Survey of Children’s Health (2003, 2007, and 2011). J Clin Psychiatry. 2016;77(1):52–9.
Shifrer D, Muller C, Callahan R. Disproportionality and learning disabilities: parsing apart race, socioeconomic status, and language. J Learn Disabil. 2011;44(3):246–57.
Magaña S, Lopez K, Aguinaga A, Morton H. Access to diagnosis and treatment services among Latino children with autism spectrum disorders. Intellect Dev Disabil. 2013;51(3):141–53.
Blewett, L.A., et al. IPUMS Health Surveys: National Health Interview Survey, Version 6.3 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018. 2018; Available from: https://doi.org/10.18128/D070.V6.3.
United States Census Bureau. Facts for features: Hispanic heritage month 2017. Fast Facts 2017; Available from: https://www.census.gov/newsroom/facts-for-features/2017/hispanic-heritage.html.
Fry RA. Latino settlement in the new century. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center; 2008.
Cauce, A.M. and M. Domenech-Rodriguez, Latino families: myths and realities. Latino children and families in the United States: Current research and future directions, 2002: p. 3–25.
Magaña S, Lopez K, Machalicek W. Parents taking action: a psycho-educational intervention for Latino parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. Fam Process. 2017;56(1):59–74.
Macartney, S., A. Bishaw, and K. Fontenot, Poverty rates for selected detailed race and Hispanic groups by state and place: 2007–2011. 2013: US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US ….
Adhanom-Ghebreyesus, T. Health is a fundamental human right. 2017 [cited 2018 September 4, 2018]; Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/fundamental-human-right/en/.
Raphael JL, Guadagnolo BA, Beal AC, Giardino AP. Racial and ethnic disparities in indicators of a primary care medical home for children. Acad Pediatr. 2009;9(4):221–7.
Flores G, Olson L, Tomany-Korman SC. Racial and ethnic disparities in early childhood health and health care. Pediatrics. 2005;115(2):e183–93.
Abdullahi I, Leonard H, Cherian S, Mutch R, Glasson EJ, de Klerk N, et al. The risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities in children of immigrant and refugee parents: current knowledge and directions for future research. Rev J Autism Dev Disord. 2018;5(1):29–42.
Campbell SM, Roland MO, Buetow SA. Defining quality of care. Soc Sci Med. 2000;51(11):1611–25.
Flores G. Technical report—racial and ethnic disparities in the health and health care of children. Pediatrics. 2010: p. peds. 2010-0188;125:e979–e1020.
Thomas KC, Ellis AR, McLaurin C, Daniels J, Morrissey JP. Access to care for autism-related services. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37(10):1902–12.
Magaña S, Parish SL, Rose RA, Timberlake M, Swaine JG. Racial and ethnic disparities in quality of health care among children with autism and other developmental disabilities. Intellect Dev Disabil. 2012;50(4):287–99.
Parish S, Magaña S, Rose R, Timberlake M, Swaine JG. Health care of Latino children with autism and other developmental disabilities: quality of provider interaction mediates utilization. Am J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2012;117(4):304–15.
Philbin MM, Flake M, Hatzenbuehler ML, Hirsch JS. State-level immigration and immigrant-focused policies as drivers of Latino health disparities in the United States. Soc Sci Med. 2018;199:29–38.
Toomey RB, Umaña-Taylor AJ, Williams DR, Harvey-Mendoza E, Jahromi LB, Updegraff KA. Impact of Arizona’s SB 1070 immigration law on utilization of health care and public assistance among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers and their mother figures. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(S1):S28–34.
White K, Yeager VA, Menachemi N, Scarinci IC. Impact of Alabama’s immigration law on access to health care among Latina immigrants and children: implications for national reform. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(3):397–405.
Fountain C, Bearman P. Risk as social context: immigration policy and autism in California 1. In: Sociological Forum, vol. 26: Wiley Online Library; 2011. p. 215–40.
Timmins CL. The impact of language barriers on the health care of Latinos in the United States: a review of the literature and guidelines for practice. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2002;47(2):80–96.
Amant HGS, et al. Language barriers impact access to services for children with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018;48(2):333–40.
Coker, C.C., A comparison of job satisfaction and economic benefits of four different employment models for persons with disabilities. 1995.
Zuckerman KE, Mattox K, Donelan K, Batbayar O, Baghaee A, Bethell C. Pediatrician identification of Latino children at risk for autism spectrum disorder. Pediatrics. 2013: p. peds. 2013-0383;132:445–53.
Guevara JP, Gerdes M, Localio R, Huang YV, Pinto-Martin J, Minkovitz CS, et al. Effectiveness of developmental screening in an urban setting. Pediatrics. 2013: p peds. 2012-0765;131:30–7.
Zuckerman KE, Sinche B, Mejia A, Cobian M, Becker T, Nicolaidis C. Latino parents’ perspectives on barriers to autism diagnosis. Acad Pediatr. 2014;14(3):301–8.
Norbury CF, Sparks A. Difference or disorder? Cultural issues in understanding neurodevelopmental disorders. Dev Psychol. 2013;49(1):45–58.
Blacher J, Lopez S, Shapiro J, Fusco J. Contributions to depression in Latina mothers with and without children with retardation: implications for caregiving. Fam Relat. 1997;46:325–34.
Bailey DB Jr, et al. Awareness, use, and satisfaction with services for Latino parents of young children with disabilities. Except Child. 1999;65(3):367–81.
Reyes NM, Lindly OJ, Chavez AE, Folan A, Macias K, Smith KA, et al. Maternal beliefs about autism: a link between intervention services and autism severity in White and Latino mothers. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2018;51:38–48.
Cohen SR, Miguel J. Amor and social stigma: ASD beliefs among immigrant Mexican parents. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018;48(6):1995–2009.
Marolda CA. Effects of cultural assimilation on Latino parents’ knowledge and attitudes towards autism and perceived barriers to health care: Capella University; 2018.
Zuckerman KE, Sinche B, Cobian M, Cervantes M, Mejia A, Becker T, et al. Conceptualization of autism in the Latino community and its relationship with early diagnosis. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2014;35(8):522–32.
Singh GK, Yu SM, Kogan MD. Health, chronic conditions, and behavioral risk disparities among US immigrant children and adolescents. Public Health Rep. 2013;128(6):463–79.
Cuy Castellanos D. Dietary acculturation in Latinos/Hispanics in the United States. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2015;9(1):31–6.
Kim J, Nicodimos S, Kushner SE, Rhew IC, McCauley E, Vander Stoep A. Comparing mental health of US children of immigrants and non-immigrants in 4 racial/ethnic groups. J Sch Health. 2018;88(2):167–75.
Chang, J.A., Health, health insurance coverage, health care service utilization and family structure among children of immigrants. 2018.
Durkin MS, Maenner MJ, Baio J, Christensen D, Daniels J, Fitzgerald R, et al. Autism spectrum disorder among US children (2002–2010): socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic disparities. Am J Public Health. 2017;107(11):1818–26.
Palmer RF, Walker T, Mandell D, Bayles B, Miller CS. Explaining low rates of autism among Hispanic schoolchildren in Texas. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(2):270–2.
Johnson B. Early intervention in children with developmental disabilities. BMH Med J. 2016;3(1).
Lowe K, Allen D, Jones E, Brophy S, Moore K, James W. Challenging behaviours: prevalence and topographies. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2007;51(8):625–36.
Petrenko CL. A review of intervention programs to prevent and treat behavioral problems in young children with developmental disabilities. J Dev Phys Disabil. 2013;25(6):651–79.
Liptak GS, Benzoni LB, Mruzek DW, Nolan KW, Thingvoll MA, Wade CM, et al. Disparities in diagnosis and access to health services for children with autism: data from the National Survey of Children’s Health. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2008;29(3):152–60.
Fountain C, King MD, Bearman PS. Age of diagnosis for autism: individual and community factors across 10 birth cohorts. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011;65(6):503–10.
Dawson G, Rogers S, Munson J, Smith M, Winter J, Greenson J, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: the Early Start Denver Model. Pediatrics. 2010;125(1):e17–23.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Statute and regulations. 2018; Available from: https://sites.ed.gov/idea/statuteregulations/.
Johnson PJ, Blewett LA, Ruggles S, Davern ME, King ML. Four decades of population health data: the integrated health interview series as an epidemiologic resource. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.). 2008;19(6):872–5.
Artiga S, Ubri P. Key issues in children’s health coverage. Medicaid. 2017; Available from: https://www.kff.org/medicaid/issue-brief/key-issues-in-childrens-health-coverage/.
Musumeci M, Foutz J. Medicaid’s role for children with special health care needs: a look at eligibility, services, and spending. In: Kaiser Family Foundation: Kaiser Family Foundation website; 2018.
CDC. Learn the signs. Act Early 2018; Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/index.html.
Hall-Lande J, et al. Age of initial identification of autism spectrum disorder in a diverse urban sample. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018:1–6.
Dealberto MJ. Prevalence of autism according to maternal immigrant status and ethnic origin. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2011;123(5):339–48.
Lauritsen MB, Pedersen CB, Mortensen PB. Effects of familial risk factors and place of birth on the risk of autism: a nationwide register-based study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005;46(9):963–71.
Portes A, Rivas A. The adaptation of migrant children. Futur Child. 2011;21:219–46.
Ono H. Assimilation, ethnic competition, and ethnic identities of US-born persons of Mexican origin. Int Migr Rev. 2002;36(3):726–45.
U.S. Census Bureau, Americans Are Visiting the Doctor Less Frequently, Census Bureau Reports. 2012, U.S. Census Bureau U.S. Census Bureau website.
Ortega AN, Fang H, Perez VH, Rizzo JA, Carter-Pokras O, Wallace SP, et al. Health care access, use of services, and experiences among undocumented Mexicans and other Latinos. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(21):2354–60.
Berk ML, Schur CL. The effect of fear on access to care among undocumented Latino immigrants. J Immigr Health. 2001;3(3):151–6.
López-Cevallos D. Are Latino immigrants a burden to safety net services in nontraditional immigrant states? Lessons from Oregon. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(5):781–6.
Rhodes SD, Mann L, Simán FM, Song E, Alonzo J, Downs M, et al. The impact of local immigration enforcement policies on the health of immigrant Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2015;105(2):329–37.
CDC. Screening and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder 2018; Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/screening.html.
Attention Deficit Disorder Association. Adult ADHD test. 2018; Available from: https://add.org/adhd-test/.
Data-USA. Speech-language Pathology. 2016 08/15/18]; Available from: https://datausa.io/profile/cip/510203/#demographics.
Henrich J, Heine SJ, Norenzayan A. The weirdest people in the world? Behav Brain Sci. 2010;33(2–3):61–83.
Begeer S, Bouk SE, Boussaid W, Terwogt MM, Koot HM. Underdiagnosis and referral bias of autism in ethnic minorities. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39(1):142–8.
U.S. Department of Education. Fast facts: students with disabilities. 2018; Available from: https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=64.
Bronheim SM, Soto S, Anthony BJ. Addressing disparities in access to information for Hispanic families of children with special health care needs: increasing use of family-to-family centers. J Health Dispar Res Pract. 2015;8(2).
Bernier A, Carlson SM, Whipple N. From external regulation to self-regulation: early parenting precursors of young children’s executive functioning. Child Dev. 2010;81(1):326–39.
Bernier R, Mao A, Yen J. Psychopathology, families, and culture: autism. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin. 2010;19(4):855–67.
Daniels AM, Mandell DS. Explaining differences in age at autism spectrum disorder diagnosis: a critical review. Autism. 2014;18(5):583–97.
Valicenti-McDermott M, Hottinger K, Seijo R, Shulman L. Age at diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. J Pediatr. 2012;161(3):554–6.
Livingston, G. and A. Brown, The rise of multiracial and multiethnic babies in the US. Pew research center, 2017. 6.
Maguire, C. Autism on the rise: a global perspective. Harvard Global Health Review 2013; Available from: http://www.hcs.harvard.edu/hghr/online/autism-on-the-rise-a-global-perspective/.
Schmidt RJ, Hansen RL, Hartiala J, Allayee H, Schmidt LC, Tancredi DJ, et al. Prenatal vitamins, one-carbon metabolism gene variants, and risk for autism. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass). 2011;22(4):476–85.
Surén P, Roth C, Bresnahan M, Haugen M, Hornig M, Hirtz D, et al. Association between maternal use of folic acid supplements and risk of autism spectrum disorders in children. Jama. 2013;309(6):570–7.
Yang Q-H, Carter HK, Mulinare J, Berry RJ, Friedman JM, Erickson JD. Race-ethnicity differences in folic acid intake in women of childbearing age in the United States after folic acid fortification: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2002. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(5):1409–16.
Tinker SC, Devine O, Mai C, Hamner HC, Reefhuis J, Gilboa SM, et al. Estimate of the potential impact of folic acid fortification of corn masa flour on the prevention of neural tube defects. Birth Defects Res Part A. 2013;97(10):649–57.
Karoly LA. Investing in our children: what we know and don’t know about the costs and benefits of early childhood interventions: Rand Corporation; 1998.
Zwaigenbaum L, Bauman ML, Choueiri R, Kasari C, Carter A, Granpeesheh D, et al. Early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder under 3 years of age: recommendations for practice and research. Pediatrics. 2015;136(Supplement 1):S60–81.
Vandell DL, Belsky J, Burchinal M, Steinberg L, Vandergrift N, NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. Do effects of early child care extend to age 15 years? Results from the NICHD study of early child care and youth development. Child Dev. 2010;81(3):737–56.