Lim SS, Drenkard C. Epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus: capturing the butterfly. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2008;10:265–72.
La Paglia GMC, Leone MC, Lepri G, Vagelli R, Valentini E, Alunno A, et al. One year in review 2017: systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2017;35:551–61.
Helmick CG, Felson DT, Lawrence RC, Gabriel S, Hirsch R, Kwoh CK, et al. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States: part I. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:15–25.
Williams EM, Bruner L, Adkins A, Vrana C, Logan A, Kamen D, et al. I too, am America: a review of research on systemic lupus erythematosus in African-Americans. Lupus Sci Med. 2016;3:e000144.
Pons-Estel GJ, Ugarte-Gil MF, Alarcón GS. Epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2017;13:799–814.
Lim SS, Drenkard C. Epidemiology of lupus: an update. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2015;27:427–32.
Lim SS, Bayakly AR, Helmick CG, Gordon C, Easley KA, Drenkard C. The incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus, 2002-2004: the Georgia lupus registry. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014;66:357–68.
Demas KL, Costenbader KH. Disparities in lupus care and outcomes. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2009;21:102–9.
Williams DR, Lawrence JA, Davis BA. Racism and health: evidence and needed research. Annu Rev Public Health. 2019;40:105–25.
Williams DR, Mohammed SA. Racism and health I: pathways and scientific evidence. Am Behav Sci. 2013;57:1152–73.
Jones CP. Levels of racism: a theoretic framework and a gardener’s tale. Am J Public Health. 2000;90:1212–5.
Geronimus AT, Hicken M, Keene D, Bound J. “Weathering” and age patterns of allostatic load scores among blacks and whites in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2006;96:826–33.
Williams DR, Mohammed SA. Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed research. J Behav Med. 2009;32:20–47.
Lewis T, Cogburn C, Williams D. Self-reported experiences of discrimination and health: scientific advances, ongoing controversies, and emerging issues. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2015;11:407–40.
Brody GH, Miller GE, Yu T, Beach SRH, Chen E. Supportive family environments ameliorate the link between racial discrimination and epigenetic aging: a replication across two longitudinal cohorts. Psychol Sci. 2016;27:530–41.
Beatty DL, Matthews KA, Bromberger JT, Brown C. Everyday discrimination prospectively predicts inflammation across 7-years in racially diverse midlife women: study of women’s health across the nation. J Soc Issues. 2014;70:298–314.
Williams DR. Stress and the mental health of populations of color: advancing our understanding of race-related stressors. J Health Soc Behav. 2018;59:466–85.
Berger M, Sarnyai Z. “More than skin deep”: stress neurobiology and mental health consequences of racial discrimination. Stress. 2015;18:1–10.
Chae DH, Drenkard CM, Lewis TT, Lim SS. Discrimination and cumulative disease damage among African American women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Public Health. 2015;105:2099–107.
Chae DH, Martz CD, Fuller-Rowell TE, Spears EC, Smith TTG, Hunter EA, et al. Racial discrimination, disease activity, and organ damage: the black women’s experiences living with lupus (BeWELL) study. Am J Epidemiol In press. doi https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz105.
Krieger N. Discrimination and health inequities. Int J Health Serv. 2014;44:643–710.
Paradies Y, Ben J, Denson N, Elias A, Priest N, Pieterse A, et al. Racism as a determinant of health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0138511.
Harrell SP. A multidimensional conceptualization of racism-related stress: implications for the well-being of people of color. Am J Orthop. 2000;70:42–57.
Gee GC, Walsemann KM, Brondolo E. A life course perspective on how racism may be related to health inequities. Am J Public Health. 2012;102:967–74.
Heard-Garris NJ, Cale M, Camaj L, Hamati MC, Dominguez TP. Transmitting trauma: a systematic review of vicarious racism and child health. Soc Sci Med. 2018;199:230–40.
Elder G, Johnson MK, Crosnoe R. The emergence and development of life course theory. In: Mortimer JT, Shanahan MJ, editors. Handbook of the life course. Boston: Springer; 2003. p. 3–19.
Woods-Giscombé CL, Lobel M, Zimmer C, Cené CW, Corbie-Smith G. Whose stress is making me sick? Network-stress and emotional distress in African-American women. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2015;36:710–7.
Bor J, Venkataramani AS, Williams DR, Tsai AC. Police killings and their spillover effects on the mental health of black Americans: a population-based, quasi-experimental study. Lancet. 2018;392:302–10.
Novak NL, Geronimus AT, Martinez-Cardoso AM. Change in birth outcomes among infants born to Latina mothers after a major immigration raid. Int J Epidemiol. 2017;46:839–49.
Krieger N, Huynh M, Li W, Waterman PD, Wye GV. Severe sociopolitical stressors and preterm births in New York City: 1 September 2015 to 31 august 2017. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2018;72:1147–52.
Richman LS, Jonassaint C. The effects of race-related stress on cortisol reactivity in the laboratory: implications of the Duke lacrosse scandal. Ann Behav Med. 2008;35:105–10.
Nuru-Jeter A, Dominguez TP, Hammond WP, Leu J, Skaff M, Egerter S, et al. “It’s the skin you’re in”: African-American women talk about their experiences of racism. An exploratory study to develop measures of racism for birth outcome studies. Matern Child Health J. 2009;13:29–39.
Woods-Giscombé CL. Superwoman Schema: African American women’s views on stress, strength, and health. Qual Health Res. 2010;20:668–83.
McEwen BS. Stress, adaptation, and disease: Allostasis and allostatic load. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998;840:33–44.
Brody GH, Yu T, Miller GE, Chen E. Discrimination, racial identity, and cytokine levels among African-American adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2015;56:496–501.
Su D-L, Lu Z-M, Shen M-N, Li X, Sun L-Y. Roles of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of SLE. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012;2012:347141.
Eudy AM, Vines AI, Dooley MA, Cooper GS, Parks CG. Elevated C-reactive protein and self-reported disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2014;23:1460–7.
Williams DR, Medlock MM. Health effects of dramatic societal events — ramifications of the recent presidential election. N Engl J Med. 2017;376:2295–9.
Drenkard C, Bao G, Dennis G, Kan HJ, Jhingran PM, Molta CT, et al. Burden of systemic lupus erythematosus on employment and work productivity: data from a large cohort in the southeastern United States. Arthritis Care Res. 2014;66:878–87.
Aberer E. Epidemiologic, socioeconomic and psychosocial aspects in lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2010;19:1118–24.
Pawlak CR, Witte T, Heiken H, Hundt M, Schubert J, Wiese B, et al. Flares in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are associated with daily psychological stress. Psychother Psychosom. 2003;72:159–65.
Karlson EW, Daltroy LH, Rivest C, Ramsey-Goldman R, Wright EA, Partridge AJ, et al. Validation of a systemic lupus activity questionnaire (SLAQ) for population studies. Lupus. 2003;12:280–6.
Atkins R. Instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination: review and critique of factor analytic techniques. Int J Health Serv. 2014;44:711–34.
Williams DR, Gonzalez HM, Williams S, Mohammed SA, Moomal H, Stein DJ. Perceived discrimination, race and health in South Africa. Soc Sci Med. 2008;67:441–52.
Yazdany J, Trupin L, Gansky SA, Dall’era M, Yelin EH, Criswell LA, et al. The brief index of lupus damage (BILD): a patient-reported measure of damage in SLE. Arthritis Care Res. 2011;63:1170–7.
Hicken MT, Kravitz-Wirtz N, Durkee M, Jackson JS. Racial inequalities in health: framing future research. Soc Sci Med. 2018;Feb;199:11–8.
Hagiwara N, Alderson CJ, Mezuk B. Differential effects of personal-level vs group-level racial discrimination on health among black Americans. Ethn Dis. 2016;26:453–60.
Slaughter-Acey JC, Talley LM, Stevenson HC, Misra DP. Personal versus group experiences of racism and risk of delivering a small-for-gestational age infant in African American women: a life course perspective. J Urban Health. 2019;96:181–92.
Huynh VW, Huynh Q-L, Stein M-P. Not just sticks and stones: indirect ethnic discrimination leads to greater physiological reactivity. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2017;23:425–34.
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, National Public Radio, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Discrimination in America: Experiences and views of African Americans. 2017. https://www.rwjf.org/content/dam/farm/reports/reports/2017/rwjf441128. Accessed 21 Nov 2017.
United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. Hate Crime Statistics, 2017. 2018. https://ucr.fbi.gov/hate-crime/2017/topic-pages/incidents-and-offenses. Accessed 14 Jan 2019.
Eligon J. Hate crimes increase for the third consecutive year, F.BI Reports N Y Times 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/13/us/hate-crimes-fbi-2017.html. Accessed 14 Jan 2019.
Mancini AD, Littleton HL, Grills AE. Can people benefit from acute stress? Social support, psychological improvement, and resilience after the Virginia Tech campus shootings. Clin Psychol Sci. 2015;4:401–17.
Reifels L, Pietrantoni L, Prati G, Kim Y, Kilpatrick DG, Dyb G, et al. Lessons learned about psychosocial responses to disaster and mass trauma: an international perspective. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2013;4:22897.