Advertisement

Public Health’s Approach to Systemic Racism: a Systematic Literature Review

  • Billie Castle
  • Monica Wendel
  • Jelani Kerr
  • Derrick Brooms
  • Aaron Rollins
Article

Abstract

Objectives

Recently, public health has acknowledged racism as a social determinant of health. Much evidence exists on the impact of individual-level racism and discrimination, with little to no examination of racism from the standpoint of systems and structures. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to analyze the extent to which public health currently addresses systemic racism in the published literature.

Methods

Utilizing the PRISMA guidelines, this review examines three widely used databases to examine published literature covering the topic as well as implications for future research and practice.

Results

A total of 85 articles were included in the review analysis after meeting study criteria.

Conclusions

Across numerous articles, the terms racism and systemic racism are largely absent. A critical need exists for an examination of the historical impact of systemic racism on the social determinants of health and health of marginalized populations.

Keywords

Systemic racism Systematic review Health equity Health disparity gaps 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. 1.
    Nelson A. Unequal treatment: confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. J Natl Med Assoc. 2002;94(8):666–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Feagin J, Bennefield Z. Systemic racism and US health care. Soc Sci Med. 2014;103:7–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ture K, Hamilton CV. Black power: the politics of liberation; in America: with new afterwords by the Authors. Vintage Books; 1968.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bonilla-Silva E. Racism without racists: Color-blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in America. Rowman & Littlefield; 2017.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bonilla-Silva E. Racism without racists: Color-blind racism & racial inequality in contemporary American. Maryland: Rowan & Littlefield. 2010.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Braveman PA, Kumanyika S, Fielding J, LaVeist T, Borrell LN, Manderscheid R, et al. Health disparities and health equity: the issue is justice. Am J Public Health. 2011;101(S1):S149–55.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Feagin JR. The white racial frame: Centuries of racial framing and counter-framing. Routledge; 2013.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gee GC, Ford CL. Structural racism and health inequities. Du Bois Rev. 2011;8(01):115–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Krieger N. Does racism harm health? Did child abuse exist before 1962? On explicit questions, critical science, and current controversies: an ecosocial perspective. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(2):194–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Paradies Y. A systematic review of empirical research on self-reported racism and health. Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35(4):888–901.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Walters KL, Mohammed SA, Evans-Campbell T, Beltrán RE, Chae DH, Duran B. Bodies don't just tell stories, they tell histories: embodiment of historical trauma among American Indians and Alaska natives. Du Bois Rev. 2011;8(1):179–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jones CP. Levels of racism: a theoretic framework and a gardener's tale. Am J Public Health. 2000;90(8):1212–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brondolo E, Rieppi R, Kelly KP, Gerin W. Perceived racism and blood pressure: a review of the literature and conceptual and methodological critique. Ann Behav Med. 2003;25(1):55–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Calvin R, Winters K, Wyatt SB, Williams DR, Henderson FC, Walker ER. Racism and cardiovascular disease in African Americans. Am J Med Sci. 2003;325(6):315–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Krieger N. Embodying inequality: a review of concepts, measures, and methods for studying health consequences of discrimination. Int J Health Serv. 1999;29(2):295–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Krieger N, Rowley DL, Herman AA, Avery B, Phillips MT. Racism, sexism, and social class: implications for studies of health, disease, and well-being. Am J Prev Med. 1993;9:82–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Williams DR, Neighbors HW, Jackson JS. Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: findings from community studies. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(2):200–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Williams DR, Williams-Morris R. Racism and mental health: the African American experience. Ethn Health. 2000;5(3/4):243–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fullilove MT. Comment: abandoning" race" as a variable in public health research—an idea whose time has come. Am J Public Health. 1998;88(9):1297–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bailey ZD, Krieger N, Agénor M, Graves J, Linos N, Bassett MT. Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: evidence and interventions. Lancet. 2017;389(10077):1453–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, The PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009;6(7):e1000097.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Acevedo-Garcia D, Rosenfeld LE, Hardy E, McArdle N, Osypuk TL. Future directions in research on institutional and interpersonal discrimination and children's health. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(10):1754–63.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Betancourt JR, et al. Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. Public Health Rep. 2016;118(4):293–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bowleg L. The problem with the phrase women and minorities: intersectionality—an important theoretical framework for public health. Am J Public Health. 2012;102(7):1267–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Browne T, Pitner R, Freedman DA. When identifying health disparities as a problem is a problem: pedagogical strategies for examining racialized contexts. J Prev Interv Community. 2013;41(4):220–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Buckner-Brown J, et al. Racial and ethnic approaches to community health: reducing health disparities by addressing social determinants of health. Fam Community Health. 2011;34(Suppl 1):S12–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Came H, Griffith D. Tackling racism as a "wicked" public health problem: enabling allies in anti-racism praxis. Soc Sci Med. 2017;199:181–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Crawford ND, Amesty S, Rivera AV, Harripersaud K, Turner A, Fuller CM. Randomized, community-based pharmacy intervention to expand services beyond sale of sterile syringes to injection drug users in pharmacies in New York City. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(9):1579–82.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ford CL, Airhihenbuwa CO. Critical race theory, race equity, and public health: toward antiracism praxis. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(S1):S30–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Griffith DM, Yonas M, Mason M, Havens BE. Considering organizational factors in addressing health care disparities: two case examples. Health Promot Pract. 2010;11(3):367–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Griffith DM, Johnson J, Ellis KR, Schulz AJ. Cultural context and a critical approach to eliminating health disparities. Ethn Dis. 2010;20(1):71–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Havens BE, Yonas MA, Mason MA, Eng E, Farrar VD. Eliminating inequities in health care: understanding perceptions and participation in an antiracism initiative. Health Promot Pract. 2011;12(6):848–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Krieger N. Methods for the scientific study of discrimination and health: an ecosocial approach. Am J Public Health. 2012;102(5):936–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kruger DJ, Carty DC, Turbeville AR, French-Turner TM, Brownlee S. Undoing racism through Genesee County's REACH infant mortality reduction initiative. Prog Community Health Partnersh. 2015;9(1):57–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pestronk RM, Franks ML. A partnership to reduce African American infant mortality in Genesee County, Michigan. Public Health Rep. 2003;118(4):324–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rencher WC, Wolf LE. Redressing past wrongs: changing the common rule to increase minority voices in research. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(12):2136–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Thomas SB, Quinn SC, Butler J, Fryer CS, Garza MA. Toward a fourth generation of disparities research to achieve health equity. Annu Rev Public Health. 2011;32:399–416.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Trinh-Shevrin C, Islam NS, Nadkarni S, Park R, Kwon SC. Defining an integrative approach for health promotion and disease prevention: a population health equity framework. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2015;26(2 0):146–63.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yonas MA, Jones N, Eng E, Vines AI, Aronson R, Griffith DM, et al. The art and science of integrating undoing racism with CBPR: challenges of pursuing NIH funding to investigate cancer care and racial equity. J Urban Health. 2006;83(6):1004–12.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Smedley BD, Myers HF. Conceptual and methodological challenges for health disparities research and their policy implications. J Soc Issues. 2014;70(2):382–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Carrillo JE, Carrillo VA, Perez HR, Salas-Lopez D, Natale-Pereira A, Byron AT. Defining and targeting health care access barriers. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2011;22(2):562–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Shavers VL, Fagan P, Jones D, Klein WMP, Boyington J, Moten C, et al. The state of research on racial/ethnic discrimination in the receipt of health care. Am J Public Health. 2012;102(5):953–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jee-Lyn García J, Sharif MZ. Black lives matter: a commentary on racism and public health. Am J Public Health. 2015;105(8):e27–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lin-Fu JS. Special health concerns of ethnic minority women. Public Health Rep. 1987;102(4 Suppl):12–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Paradies YC. Defining, conceptualizing and characterizing racism in health research. Crit Public Health. 2006;16:143–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Menefee LT. Are black Americans entitled to equal health care? A new research paradigm. Ethn Dis. 1996;6(1–2):56–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Noonan AS, Velasco-Mondragon HE, Wagner FA. Improving the health of African Americans in the USA: an overdue opportunity for social justice. Public Health Rev. 2016;37(1):12.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Thoits PA. Stress and health: major findings and policy implications. J Health Soc Behav. 2010;51(1_suppl):S41–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jones CP. Invited commentary:“race,” racism, and the practice of epidemiology. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;154(4):299–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jones CP, et al. Addressing the social determinants of children's health: a cliff analogy. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2009;20(4):1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Beard JR, Cerdá M, Blaney S, Ahern J, Vlahov D, Galea S. Neighborhood characteristics and change in depressive symptoms among older residents of New York City. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(7):1308–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cerda M, Tracy M, Galea S. Simulating counterficals: neighborhood interventions to reduce disparities in violence and Psychopathology. Am J Epidemiol. 2012. Oxford Univ Press Inc Journals Dept, 2001 Evans Rd, Cary, Nc 27513 USA.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fabio A, Li W, Strotmeyer S, Branas CC. Racial segregation and county level intentional injury in Pennsylvania: analysis of hospital discharge data for 1997–1999. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004;58(4):346–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fabio A, Sauber-Schatz EK, Barbour KE, Li W. The association between county-level injury rates and racial segregation revisited: a multilevel analysis. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(4):748–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Frye V, Egan JE, Tieu HV, Cerdá M, Ompad D, Koblin BA. “I didn't think I could get out of the fucking park.” Gay men's retrospective accounts of neighborhood space, emerging sexuality and migrations. Soc Sci Med. 2014;104:6–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Grady SC. Racial disparities in low birthweight and the contribution of residential segregation: a multilevel analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2006;63(12):3013–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hogan VK, et al. The impact of social disadvantage on preconception health, illness, and well-being: an intersectional analysis. Am J Health Promot. 2013;27(3_suppl):eS32–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jones A. Segregation and cardiovascular illness: the role of individual and metropolitan socioeconomic status. Health Place. 2013;22:56–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kimbro RT, Denney JT. Neighborhood context and racial/ethnic differences in young children's obesity: structural barriers to interventions. Soc Sci Med. 2013;95:97–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kravitz-Wirtz N. Cumulative effects of growing up in separate and unequal neighborhoods on racial disparities in self-rated health in early adulthood. J Health Soc Behav. 2016;57(4):453–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mendez DD, Hogan VK, Culhane J. Institutional racism and pregnancy health: using Home Mortgage Disclosure Act data to develop an index for mortgage discrimination at the community level. Public Health Rep. 2011;126(Suppl 3):102–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mendez DD, Hogan VK, Culhane JF. Institutional racism, neighborhood factors, stress, and preterm birth. Ethn Health. 2014;19(5):479–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Reid AE, Dovidio JF, Ballester E, Johnson BT. HIV prevention interventions to reduce sexual risk for African Americans: the influence of community-level stigma and psychological processes. Soc Sci Med. 2014;103:118–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rice LJ, Hughes B, Briggs V, Delmoor E, Jefferson M, Johnson JC, et al. Perceived efficacy and control for neighborhood change: the cross-cutting role of collective efficacy. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2016;3(4):667–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Schempf A, Strobino D, O'Campo P. Neighborhood effects on birthweight: an exploration of psychosocial and behavioral pathways in Baltimore, 1995–1996. Soc Sci Med. 2009;68(1):100–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Schulz AJ, Zenk SN, Israel BA, Mentz G, Stokes C, Galea S. Do neighborhood economic characteristics, racial composition, and residential stability predict perceptions of stress associated with the physical and social environment? Findings from a multilevel analysis in Detroit. J Urban Health. 2008;85(5):642–61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Walton E. Residential segregation and birth weight among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. J Health Soc Behav. 2009;50(4):427–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Williams DR, Collins C. Racial residential segregation: a fundamental cause of racial disparities in health. Public Health Rep. 2001;116(5):404–16.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Witt WP, Park H, Wisk LE, Cheng ER, Mandell K, Chatterjee D, et al. Neighborhood disadvantage, preconception stressful life events, and infant birth weight. Am J Public Health. 2015;105(5):1044–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bliss D, et al. Cross-sectoral collaboration: the state health official's role in elevating and promoting health equity in all policies in Minnesota. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2016;22(Suppl 1):S87–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Morin S, et al. Responding to racial and ethnic disparities in use of HIV drugs: analysis of state policies. Public Health Rep. 2002;117:263–72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Exworthy M, Washington AE. Organizational strategies to tackle health-care disparities in the USA. Health Serv Manag Res. 2006;19(1):44–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nomaguchi K, House AN. Racial-ethnic disparities in maternal parenting stress: the role of structural disadvantages and parenting values. J Health Soc Behav. 2013;54(3):386–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Adams LM, Simoni JM. The need for multi-level mitigation of medical mistrust among social network members contributing to antiretroviral treatment nonadherence in African Americans living with HIV: comment on Bogart et al. (2016). Soc Sci Med. 1982;2016(159):58–60.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Alang S, McAlpine D, McCreedy E, Hardeman R. Police brutality and black health: setting the agenda for public health scholars. Am J Public Health. 2017;107(5):662–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Armstrong DL, Strogatz D, Wang R. United States coronary mortality trends and community services associated with occupational structure, among blacks and whites, 1984-1998. Soc Sci Med. 2004;58(11):2349–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Arriola KJ. Race, racism, and access to renal transplantation among African Americans. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2017;28(1):30–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ulmer JT, Harris CT, Steffensmeier D. Racial and ethnic disparities in structural disadvantage and crime: White, Black, and Hispanic comparisons. Soc Sci Q. 2012;93(3):799–819.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Williams DR. Miles to go before we sleep: racial inequities in health. J Health Soc Behav. 2012;53(3):279–95.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Smedley BD. The lived experience of race and its health consequences. Am J Public Health. 2012;102(5):933–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Christopher G , Simpson P. Improving birth outcomes requires closing the racial gap. Am J Public Health. 2014;1:S10-2.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Clark VR. The perilous effects of racism on blacks. Ethn Dis. 2001;11(4):769–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Cooper RS, Kennelly JF, Durazo-Arvizu R, Oh HJ, Kaplan G, Lynch J. Relationship between premature mortality and socioeconomic factors in black and white populations of US metropolitan areas. Public Health Rep. 2001;116(5):464–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Cubbin C, LeClere FB, Smith GS. Socioeconomic status and injury mortality: individual and neighbourhood determinants. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2000;54(7):517–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Dillon PJ, Basu A. HIV/AIDS and minority men who have sex with men: a meta-ethnographic synthesis of qualitative research. Health Commun. 2014;29(2):182–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Dutta M, Sastry S, Dillard S, Kumar R, Anaele A, Collins W, et al. Narratives of stress in health meanings of African Americans in Lake County, Indiana. Health Commun. 2017;32(10):1241–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Franzini L, Caughy M, Spears W, Eugenia Fernandez Esquer M. Neighborhood economic conditions, social processes, and self-rated health in low-income neighborhoods in Texas: a multilevel latent variables model. Soc Sci Med. 2005;61(6):1135–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Friedman SR, Cooper HL, Osborne AH. Structural and social contexts of HIV risk among African Americans. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(6):1002–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gee GC, Walsemann KM, Brondolo E. A life course perspective on how racism may be related to health inequities. Am J Public Health. 2012;102(5):967–74.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hong S, Burnett-Zeigler I. The frequency of PTSD and subthreshold PTSD among African–American women with depressive symptoms in a disadvantaged urban neighborhood: pilot study. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2017;4(6):1069–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Iguchi M, et al. How criminal system racial disparities may translate into health disparities. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2005;16(4):48–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lane SD, Rubinstein RA, Keefe RH, Webster N, Cibula DA, Rosenthal A, et al. Structural violence and racial disparity in HIV transmission. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2004;15(3):319–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Lukachko A, Hatzenbuehler ML, Keyes KM. Structural racism and myocardial infarction in the United States. Soc Sci Med. 2014;103:42–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mazul MC, Salm Ward TC, Ngui EM. Anatomy of good prenatal care: perspectives of low income African-American women on barriers and facilitators to prenatal care. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2017;4(1):79–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    McAllister CL, Thomas TL, Wilson PC, Green BL. Root shock revisited: perspectives of early head start mothers on community and policy environments and their effects on child health, development, and school readiness. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(2):205–10.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Paul K, Boutain D, Manhart L, Hitti J. Racial disparity in bacterial vaginosis: the role of socioeconomic status, psychosocial stress, and neighborhood characteristics, and possible implications for preterm birth. Soc Sci Med. 2008;67(5):824–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Quach T, Nuru-Jeter A, Morris P, Allen L, Shema SJ, Winters JK, et al. Experiences and perceptions of medical discrimination among a multiethnic sample of breast cancer patients in the greater San Francisco Bay Area, California. Am J Public Health. 2012;102(5):1027–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ransome Y, Kawachi I, Braunstein S, Nash D. Structural inequalities drive late HIV diagnosis: the role of black racial concentration, income inequality, socioeconomic deprivation, and HIV testing. Health Place. 2016;42:148–58.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wallace ME, Mendola P, Liu D, Grantz KL. Joint effects of structural racism and income inequality on small-for-gestational-age birth. Am J Public Health. 2015;105(8):1681–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wallace M, Crear-Perry J, Richardson L, Tarver M, Theall K. Separate and unequal: structural racism and infant mortality in the US. Health Place. 2017;45:140–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wallington SF, Blake KD, Taylor-Clark K, Viswanath K. Challenges in covering health disparities in local news media: an exploratory analysis assessing views of journalists. J Community Health. 2010;35(5):487–94.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Krieger N. Does racism harm health? Did child abuse exist before 1962? On explicit questions, critical science, and current controversies: an ecosocial perspective. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(Supplement_1):S20–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Rosner D, Markowitz G. Race, foster care, and the politics of abandonment in New York City. Am J Public Health. 1997;87(11):1844–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Jones CP, Truman BI, Elam-Evans LD, Jones CA, Jones CY, Jiles R, et al. Using “socially assigned race” to probe white advantages in health status. Ethn Dis. 2008;18(4):496–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Delgado R, Stefancic J. Critical race theory: An introduction. NYU Press; 2017.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Crenshaw K. Mapping the margins: intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Rev. 1991;43:1241–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    LaVeist TA, Sellers R, Neighbors HW. Perceived racism and self and system blame attribution: consequences for longevity. Ethn Dis. 2001;11(4):711–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Mays VM, Cochran SD, Barnes NW. Race, race-based discrimination, and health outcomes among African Americans. Annu Rev Psychol. 2007;58:201–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Paradies Y, Priest N, Ben J, Truong M, Gupta A, Pieterse A, et al. Racism as a determinant of health: a protocol for conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Syst Rev. 2013;2(1):85.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Williams DR, Mohammed SA. Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed research. J Behav Med. 2009;32(1):20–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Liu SY, Chen J, Glymour MM. Decrease trend in common-cause adolescent mortality rates following school desegregation legislation, US 1968-1988. Am J Epidemiol. 2011, vol. 173. Oxford Univ Press Inc, Journals Dept, 2001 Evans Rd, Cary, NC 27513 USA.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ryan W. Blaming the victim. 1976; vol. 226. New York, NY: Vintage.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Beauchamp DE. Public health as social justice. Inquiry. 1976;13(1):3–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Crawford R. You are dangerous to your health: the ideology and politics of victim blaming. Int J Health Serv. 1977;7(4):663–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Watt RG. From victim blaming to upstream action: tackling the social determinants of oral health inequalities. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2007;35(1):1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Petitt B. Borrowed power. Adv Dev Hum Resour. 2009;11(5):633–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© W. Montague Cobb-NMA Health Institute 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Public Health and Information Sciences, Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences DepartmentUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Sociology, College of Arts and SciencesUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  3. 3.Department of Urban and Public Affairs, College of Arts and SciencesUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations