Level of Cigarette Consumption and Duration of Smoking Abstinence During Failed Quit Attempts Among Long-Term Daily Smokers: the Role of Race/Ethnicity and Cessation Aids

  • Julia N . SoulakovaEmail author
  • Lisa J. Crockett


The goal of this study was to determine whether race/ethnicity and use of smoking cessation aids are associated with the duration of the last serious quit attempt and reductions in cigarette consumption among long-term daily smokers who tried, and failed, to quit smoking during the preceding year. Data came from the 2010–2011 Tobacco Use Supplement survey conducted in the USA, and analyses included 6672 reports of long-term daily smokers (i.e., smokers who smoked daily for 1 year or longer) who made at least one serious quit attempt in the past 12 months. About 39% of these smokers used at least one smoking cessation aid during their last quit attempt. Use of aids was significantly lower for non-Hispanic Black (NHB, 29%) and Hispanic (HISP, 29%) smokers than for non-Hispanic White (NHW, 42%) smokers, possibly due to differences in socioeconomic status and access to healthcare for smoking cessation. The effect of using any aids on mean cigarette reduction and duration of the last long quit attempt (i.e., one that lasted a day or more) was similar across race/ethnicity. Using any aids did not substantially influence mean cigarette reduction but was positively associated with duration of the quit attempt: the duration was 6 days longer (CI = 3:10), on average, when aids were used than when smokers attempted to quit unassisted. Race/ethnicity was significantly associated with mean cigarette reduction (p = 0.023); non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native smokers had the highest mean reduction (of 3 cigarettes, CI = 1:5) among the racial/ethnic groups considered. Use of aids may help increase duration of quit attempts and thus, may increase likelihood of quitting successfully in the near future.


Health-risk behavior National survey Replicate weights Self-report Substance use 



We would like to thank the editor and reviewers for providing us with their constructive comments.

Compliance with Ethical Standards


Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01MD009718. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© W. Montague Cobb-NMA Health Institute 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of MedicineUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Nebraska—LincolnLincolnUSA

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