Advertisement

The Behavior Analyst

, Volume 40, Issue 1, pp 257–273 | Cite as

Extended Behavior-Context Relations: a Molar View of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

  • Oscar Córdoba-Salgado
Original Research

Abstract

This paper seeks to reinterpret current tenets of functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP) using some assumptions of molar behaviorism. In it, a conceptual alternative to the molecular approach is proposed to explain the mechanisms of change of FAP. To achieve this goal, the utility and limitations of using discrete responses and stimuli as units of analysis are discussed. As an alternative, this paper suggests, as proposed by molar behaviorism, using activities as the unit of analysis. The use of activities as the unit of analysis would allow analyses of clinical behavior as choices in different time scales and measurements of clinical behavior using time allocation. Using choice behavior to analyze data allows analyses of behavior in terms of its short-term and long-term value. It is argued that time allocation as a unit of measure is more appropriate than the rate of behavior because it allows the continuous measurement of behavior and comparisons of disparate behaviors as they occur during therapy sessions. Finally, a multi-scale analysis would allow the articulation of long-term and short-term contingencies that are related to therapy and behavioral change.

Keywords

Molar behaviorism Functional analytic psychotherapy Time allocation Multi-scale view 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author thanks Tatiana Plata-Caviedes, Diana Cortés, Paulo Dillon, and Camilo Hurtado-Parrado for their helpful comments on an early version of this paper

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Baruch, D. E., Kanter, J. W., Busch, A. M., Plummer, M. D., Tsai, M., … & Holman G. I. (2009). Lines of evidence in support of FAP. In: M. Tsai, R. J. Kohlenberg, J. W. Kanter, B. Kohlenberg, W. C. Follette, & G. M. Callaghan (Eds.), A guide to functional analytic psychotherapy: awareness, courage, love, and behaviorism (pp. 21-36). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  2. Baum, W. M. (2002). From molecular to molar: a paradigm shift in behavior analysis. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 78, 95–116.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Baum, W. M. (2004). Molar and molecular views of choice. Behavioural Processes, 66, 349–359.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baum, W. M. (2005). Understanding behaviorism: behavior, culture and evolution. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  5. Baum, W. M. (2010). Dynamics of choice: a tutorial. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 94, 161–174.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Baum, W. M. (2012). Extinction as discrimination: the molar view. Behavioural Processes, 90, 101–110.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baum, W. M. (2013). What counts as behavior? The molar multiscale view. The Behavior Analyst, 36, 283–293.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Blackledge, J., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2009). Core processes in acceptance and commitment therapy. In J. T. Blackledge, J. Ciarrochi, & F. P. Deane (Eds.), Acceptance and commitment therapy: contemporary theory, research, and practice (pp. 41–58). Bowen Hills: Australian Academic Press.Google Scholar
  9. Buckner, R. L., Green, L., & Myerson, J. (1993). Short‐term and long‐term effects of reinforcers on choice. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 59, 293–307.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Busch, A. M., Callaghan, G. M., Kanter, J. W., Baruch, D. E., & Weeks, C. (2010). The functional analytic psychotherapy rating scale: a replication and extension. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 40, 11–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Busch, A. M., Kanter, J. W., Callaghan, G. M., Baruch, D. E., Weeks, C. E., & Berlin, K. S. (2009). A micro-process analysis of functional analytic psychotherapy’s mechanism of change. Behavior Therapy, 40, 280–290.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Callaghan, G. M. (2006). The functional idiographic assessment template (FIAT) system: for use with interpersonally-based interventions including functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP) and FAP-enhanced treatments. The Behavior Analyst Today, 7, 367–398.Google Scholar
  13. Callaghan, G. M., & Follette, W. (2008). FAPRS manual: manual for the functional analytic psychotherapy rating scale. The Behavior Analyst Today, 9, 57–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Callaghan, G. M., Summers, C. J., & Weidman, M. (2003). The treatment of histrionic and narcissistic personality disorder behaviors: a single-subject demonstration of clinical improvement using functional analytic psychotherapy. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 33, 321–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davison, M., & Baum, W. M. (2000). Choice in a variable environment: every reinforcer counts. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 74, 1–24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Gardner, A. W., Wacker, D. P., & Boelter, E. W. (2009). An evaluation of the interaction between quality of attention and negative reinforcement with children who display escape-maintained problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42, 343–348.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Haworth, K., Kanter, J. W., Tsai, M., Kuczynski, A. M., Rae, J. R., & Kohlenberg, R. J. (2015). Reinforcement matters: a preliminary, laboratory-based component-process analysis of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy’s model of social connection. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 4, 281–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (2012). Acceptance and commitment therapy: an experiential approach to behavior change. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  19. Hurtado-Parrado, C., & López-López, W. (2015). Single-case research methods: history and suitability for a psychological science in need of alternatives. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 49, 323–349.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Johnson, A. (1990). Time-allocation research: the costs and benefits of alternative methods. In B. L. Rogers & N. P. Schlossman (Eds.), Intra-household resource allocation: issues and methods for development policy and planning (pp. 140–155). Tokyo: United Nations University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Kamp Dush, C. M., & Amato, P. R. (2005). Consequences of relationship status and quality for subjective well-being. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22, 607–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kanter, J. W., Landes, S. J., Busch, A. M., Rusch, L. C., Brown, K. R., … & Baruch, D. E. (2006). The effect of contingent reinforcement on target variables in outpatient psychotherapy for depression: a successful and unsuccessful case using functional analytic psychotherapy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39, 463-467.Google Scholar
  23. Killingsworth, M. A., & Gilbert, D. T. (2010). A wandering mind is an unhappy mind. Science, 330, 932.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kohlenberg, R. J., & Tsai, M. (2007). Functional analytic psychotherapy: creating intense and curative therapeutic relationships. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kohlenberg, R. J., Tsai, M., Kanter, J. W., & Parker, C. R. (2009). The self and mindfulness. In M. Tsai, R. J. Kohlenberg, J. W. Kanter, B. Kohlenberg, W. C. Follette, & G. M. Callaghan (Eds.), A guide to functional analytic psychotherapy: awareness, courage, love, and behaviorism (pp. 103–130). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  26. Kohlenberg, R. J., Tsai, M., & Kanter, J. W. (2009). What is functional analytic psychotherapy? In M. Tsai, R. J. Kohlenberg, J. W. Kanter, B. Kohlenberg, W. C. Follette, & G. M. Callaghan (Eds.), A guide to functional analytic psychotherapy: awareness, courage, love, and behaviorism (pp. 1–19). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  27. Kudajie-Gyamfi, E., & Rachlin, H. (1996). Temporal patterning in choice among delayed outcomes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 65, 61–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Landes, S. J., Kanter, J. W., Weeks, C., & Busch, A. M. (2013). The impact of the active components of functional analytic psychotherapy on idiographic target behaviors. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 2, 49–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lit, K., & Mace, F. C. (2015). Where would ABA be without EAB? An example of translational research on recurrence of operant behavior and treatment relapse. Mexican Journal of Behavior Analysis, 41, 269–288.Google Scholar
  30. Lizarazo, N. E., Muñoz-Martínez, A. M., Santos, M. M., & Kanter, J. W. (2015). A within-subjects evaluation of the effects of functional analytic psychotherapy on in-session and out-of-session client behavior. The Psychological Record, 65, 463–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mace, F. C., & Critchfield, T. S. (2010). Translational research in behavior analysis: historical traditions and imperative for the future. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 93, 293–312.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Mangabeira, V., Kanter, J., & Del Prette, G. (2012). Functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP): a review of publications from 1990 to 2010. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 7, 78–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mazur, J. E., & Fantino, E. (2014). Choice. In F. K. McSweeney & E. S. Murphy (Eds.), The Wiley Blackwell handbook of operant and classical conditioning (pp. 195–220). Chichester: Wiley Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Neef, N. A., Bicard, D. F., & Endo, S. (2001). Assessment of impulsivity and the development of self-control in students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 397–408.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Neef, N. A., Marckel, J., Ferreri, S. J., Bicard, D. F., Endo, S., … & Armstrong, N. (2005). Behavioral assessment of impulsivity: a comparison of children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 23-37.Google Scholar
  36. Palmer, D. C. (2003). Cognition. In K. A. Lattal & P. N. Chase (Eds.), Behavior theory and philosophy (pp. 167–185). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pear, J. J. (1985). Spatiotemporal patterns of behavior produced by variable‐interval schedules of reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 44, 217–231.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Rachlin, H. (1989). Judgement, decision and choice: a cognitive/behavioral synthesis. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  39. Rachlin, H. (2004). The science of self-control. Cambridge: Harvard Press.Google Scholar
  40. Rapp, J. T., Vollmer, T. R., St. Peter, C., Dozier, C. J., & Cotnoir, N. M. (2004). Analysis of response allocation in individuals with multiple forms of stereotyped behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 481–501.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Ribes‐Iñesta, E., & Torres, C. (2000). The spatial distribution of behavior under varying frequencies of temporally scheduled water delivery. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 73, 195–209.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Ribes-Iñesta, E., Torres, C., Correa, L., & Montes, E. (2006). Effects of concurrent random-time schedules on the spatial distribution of behavior in rats. Behavioural Processes, 73, 41–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Skinner, B. F. (1935). The generic nature of the concepts of stimulus and responses. The Journal of General Psychology, 12, 40–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Skinner, B. F. (1963). Operant behavior. American Psychologist, 18, 503–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Timberlake, W. (1995). Reconceptualizing reinforcement: a causal-system approach to reinforcement and behavior change. In W. T. O’Donohue & L. Krasner (Eds.), Theories of behavior therapy: exploring behavior change (pp. 59–96). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tsai, M., Kohlenberg, R. J., Bolling, M. Y., & Terry, C. (2009). Values in therapy and green FAP. In M. Tsai, R. J. Kohlenberg, J. W. Kanter, B. Kohlenberg, W. C. Follette, & G. M. Callaghan (Eds.), A guide to functional analytic psychotherapy: awareness, courage, love, and behaviorism (pp. 199–212). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tsai, M., Kohlenberg, R. J., Kanter, J. W., Hollman, G. I., & Loudon, M. P. (2012). Functional analytic psychotherapy: distinctive features. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Tsai, M., Kohlenberg, R. J., Kanter, J. W., & Waltz, J. (2009). Therapeutic technique: the five rules. In M. Tsai, R. J. Kohlenberg, J. W. Kanter, B. Kohlenberg, W. C. Follette, & G. M. Callaghan (Eds.), A guide to functional analytic psychotherapy: awareness, courage, love, and behaviorism (pp. 61–102). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tsai, M., Yard, S., & Kohlenberg, R. J. (2014). Functional analytic psychotherapy: a behavioral relational approach to treatment. Psychotherapy, 51, 364–371.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Virues-Ortega, J., Hurtado-Parrado, C., Cox, A. D., & Pear, J. J. (2014). Analysis of the interaction between experimental and applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47, 380–403.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Waltz, T. J., & Follette, W. C. (2009). Molar functional relations and clinical behavior analysis: implications for assessment and treatment. The Behavior Analyst, 32, 51–68.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Weeks, C. E., Kanter, J. W., Bonow, J. T., Landes, S. J., & Busch, A. M. (2012). Translating the theoretical into practical: a logical framework of functional analytic psychotherapy interactions for research, training, and clinical purposes. Behavior Modification, 36, 87–119.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Behavior Analysis International 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fundación Universitaria Konrad LorenzBogotáColombia

Personalised recommendations