Skip to main content
Log in

The Drug Abuse Research Training (DART) Program for Psychiatry Residents and Summer Fellows: 15-Year Outcomes

Academic Psychiatry Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Cite this article



To increase the number of physician-scientists in research, the Drug Abuse Research Training (DART) program at the Medical University of South Carolina offers a 2-year research track for psychiatry residents and a 10-week summer fellowship for students. The goal of this study was to examine program outcomes and alumni diversity levels over DART’s 15-year history.


To date, 215 trainees (44 residents, 171 summer fellows) have completed the program. An anonymous online survey was sent to the 143 program alumni with valid contact information. Survey data included demographic characteristics, post-program research involvement, and self-reported barriers to continued research engagement.


Overall survey completion response was 83.5% (N = 122). The alumni included 59.0% women, and 36.1% of respondents identified as a member of a minority racial/ethnic group. Following program completion, 77.0% of the alumni reported continued research involvement. More than half of the alumni reported scientific publications (57.4%) and conference presentations (63.1%) since completing DART. Among respondents who did not subsequently engage in research, the most common modifiable barriers included difficulty finding a mentor, self-perceived deficits in statistical skills and research methodology, and overall lack of confidence in research ability.


Over the past 15 years, the DART program has established a diverse research training program that now spans the educational spectrum from undergraduate to residency training. Future program goals include additional training to address self-reported modifiable research barriers. This program provides a model for other training programs designed to cultivate research interests and promote the diversity of clinical researchers.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Institutional subscriptions


  1. Salata RA, Geraci MW, Rockey DC, Blanchard M, Brown NJ, Cardinal LJ, Garcia M, Madaio MP, Marsh JD, Todd RF III. U.S. physician-scientist workforce in the 21st century: recommendations to attract and sustain the pipeline. Acad Med. 2018;93(4):565–73.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Milewicz DM, Lorenz RG, Dermody TS, Brass LF. National Association of MD-PhD Programs Executive Committee. Rescuing the physician-scientist workforce: the time for action is now. J Clin Invest. 2015;125(10):3742–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Feldman AM. The National Institutes of Health Physician-Scientist Workforce Working Group report: a roadmap for preserving the physician-scientist. Clin Transl Sci. 2014;7(4):289–90.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Davila JR. The physician-scientist: past trends and future directions. Michigan Journal of Medicine. 2016;1(1):66–73.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Fenton W, James R, Insel T. Psychiatry residency training, the physician-scientist, and the future of psychiatry. Acad Psychiatry. 2004;28(4):263–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. The postdoctoral experience revisited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2014.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  7. Blanchard M, Burton MC, Geraci MW, Madaio MP, Marsh JD, Proweller A, Rockey DC, Salata RA, Tan W, Williams CS, Zaidi M, Todd RF III. Best practices for physician-scientist training programs: recommendations from the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine. Am J Med. 2018;131(5):578–84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Clancy AA, Posner G. Attitudes toward research during residency: a survey of Canadian residents in obstetrics and gynecology. J Surg Educ. 2015;72(5):836–43.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Ganetzky RD. Becoming a physician-scientist: a view looking up from base camp. Acad Med. 2017;92(10):1373–4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Koelkebeck K, Stefanovic MP, Frydecka D, Palumbo C, Andlauer O, Riese F, Jovanovic N, Costa MP. Barriers and facilitators to conducting research by early career psychiatrists: a literature review. Glob Psychiatry. 2019;2(2):135–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Das S. Faculty development/mentoring evolution of mentorship in academic medicine. J Investig Med. 2020;68(3):721–3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Hamoda HM, Bauer MS, DeMaso DR, Sanders KM, Mezzacappa E. A competency-based model for research training during psychiatry residency. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2011;19(2):78–85.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Hall AK, Mills SL, Lund PK. Clinician-investigator training and the need to pilot new approaches to recruiting and retaining this workforce. Acad Med. 2017;92(10):1382–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Yager J, Greden J, Abrams M, Riba M. The Institute of Medicine’s report on research training in psychiatry residency: strategies for reform--background, results, and follow up. Acad Psychiatry. 2004;28(4):267–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Back SE, Book SW, Santos AB, Brady KT. Training physician-scientists: a model for integrating research into psychiatric residency. Acad Psychiatry. 2011;35(1):40–5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Campbell ANC, Back SE, Ostroff JS, Hien DA, Gourevitch MN, Sheffer CE, Brady KT, Hanley K, Bereket S, Book S. Addiction research training programs: four case studies and recommendations for evaluation. J Addict Med. 2017;11(5):333–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Lautenberger DM, Dandar VM, Raezer CL, Aloane RA. The state of women in academic medicine: the pipeline and pathways to leadership, 2013-2014. Association of American Medical Colleges. 2014.; .

  18. Association of American Medical Colleges. Diversity in medicine: facts and figures 2019. Association of American Medical Colleges. 2019.; .

  19. Bensken WP, Nath A, Heiss JD, Khan OI. Future directions of training physician-scientists: reimagining and remeasuring the workforce. Acad Med. 2019;94(5):659–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Hendriks B, Simons A, Reinhart M. What are clinician scientists expected to do? The undefined space for professionalizable work in translational biomedicine. Minerva. 2019;57(2):219–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Kwan JM, Daye D, Schmidt ML, Conlon CM, Kim H, Gaonkar B, Payne AS, Riddle M, Madera S, Adami AJ, Winter KQ. Exploring intentions of physician-scientist trainees: factors influencing MD and MD/PhD interest in research careers. BMC Med Educ. 2017;17(1):115.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors wish to thank Drs. Thomas Uhde, Ed Kantor, Jeffery Korte, and Hugh Myrick as well as Ms. Tanjanika Shivers at MUSC for their support for the DART program.


Funding was provided by the National Institute on Drug Abuse grants (R25 DA020537, K12DA031794, K23 DA039328-01A1, UG1 DA013727, U54 DA016511) and the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (R01 AA025086).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jennifer L. Jones.

Ethics declarations


On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Jones, J.L., Barth, K.S., Brown, D.G. et al. The Drug Abuse Research Training (DART) Program for Psychiatry Residents and Summer Fellows: 15-Year Outcomes. Acad Psychiatry 46, 317–324 (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: